English essay writers
Sometimes studies of this sort look for patterns that represent what a "significant" proportion of the shidents are doing and stop. One english essay writers mark of success for a collaborative planning session would be effective rhetorical planning that leads to an improved text. However, if we look at this from the logic of the learner, we see that the job of collaborative planning is not only to build a better representation of a text,but tobuild a better representation of the task. For some students who are still working on understanding what purposeful writingentails, the questions, prompts, and response of a partner may be helping develop a new image of goals to shoot for and of the expecta tions readers have— even when such learning does not lead to changes in the current text. It lets us see how writers deal with the prompts and responses of readers, in a face to face way, as well as with the projected readers, teachers, critics, and graders student envision. Collaborative planning is a forum in which we can see students trying to "read the context" of school, college writing, this class, this as- signment, where we can see interpretations being shaped and tested with a partner.
This process shows us how a critical part of the social context in which writers participate is not the context that discourse communities, teachers, assignments per se create, but the context writers interpret and represent to them- selves. At such moments writers are drawn to devote active attention to the dilemmas in shaping knowledge. And we have an opportunity to understand what it means for writing to be an individual, cognitive process of constructing a complex, socially negotiated meaning.
This is a good place to end this essay, but the reciprocity between teaching, research and theory I have tried to highlight with these five snapshots is still very much ir motion. In the same way many of the observations made in this casebook have led not only to immediate changes in practice but to a more general understanding of how different students view planning. They are showing us, for instance, what kinds of knowledge, assump- tions, and ways of "reading" a situation students bring to writing. And they reveal different ways students and their partners build negotiated meanings. And finally, they suggest things we as teachers might do to support all of these processes. Our collaborative focus on the theory and issues surrounding collaboration and planning allows our individual and informal ob- servations to contribute to developing a broader, more diversely situated theory.
And then the process contin- ues: Guided by the observations of this year, I, like the other teachers in this project, have a new snapshot in the making. What english essay writers would my students actually dis- cover if I made observation-based reflection a key part of my assignments? Would their discoveries about themselves differ from what teachers and researchers have seen? Berke- ley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon. The construction of purpose in writing and reading. Planning in Writing: The Cognition of a Constructive Process. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at Uni- versity of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon. Planning text together: The role of critical reflection in shident collaboration. Ber- keley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon. Uncovering conceptions of purpose of work in the composition classroom. Ber- english essay writers keley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon. His constructive planning strategy leads him to set his own goals for the "show-me" readers he imagines and to elaborate his intentions with more specific goalsand plans for the text.
But as frequently as collaboration works, it also has problems that lead to frustration in both teachers and students. In this paper, I attempt to reduce some of the frustration by cutting across theories, research studies, and disciplines to identify an element of collaboration — the supporter— that serves as common ground for exploration, both to advance knowledge of collaboration in writing and to help students be more effective collaborators.
Supporters are collaborators who prompt, challenge, direct, and contribute ideas to writers at any time during the writing process. Supporters can be temporary collaborators (not responsible for genera ting any text), team members, or coauthors. By defining the supporter as an element in all face-to-face and electronic collaboration, I encourage the development of a consistent vocabulary for describing the actions and interactions of collaborators and for discussing a diverse body of research- Equally important, learning about supporters may help us answer questions not only about how collaborators manage the work of wri ting and handle rhetorical elements but also how they deal with the context of the collaboration. Collaboration is based on the idea that working together may be more productive than working individually.
Underlying most classroom collabora- tion is the notion of a zone of proximal development, first proposed by Vygotsky in the 1920s, english essay writers which suggests that support or assistance enables a person to complete tasks that would be too difficult to do individually. Collaboration is too often spoken of as if it were a single type of activity that writing classes can use.
Thoseinvestigating collabo- ration in writing classrooms do not fit neatly and conveniently into a single category. They approach their work with different backgrounds and biases, COLI. In this essay, I propose that the role of supporters is critical for examining this disparate body of theory and research. In general, theorists and researchers have identi- fied a number of benefits for writers who work collaboratively, that is with supporters. However, I believe that for less experienced secondary and college writers who tend to neglect rhetorical elements, having a izupporter english essay writers may be helpful even for fairly straightforward orVoutine writing tasks. Sometimes what is obvious to a teacher or experienced student writer is obscure or even invisible to those who are less experienced. Supporters (even those who are not themselves skillful writers) can help less exf)eri- enced writers consider elements of writing that usually are ignored or given only cursory attention.
Support- ers seem to be most helpful if they balance a variety of verbal moves in purposeful sequences, including neu- tral prompts, challenging questions, and problem- solving that generates suggestions for the writer.