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Although WBL can be part of either career exploration activities or a career-focused curriculum (e. WBL is especially rare for students in rural areas. Compared to other students, minority and low SES students appear to have somewhat higher WBL participation fates. Some notable patterns haVe also emerged across California STC efforts with respect to the connections forged between schools and key partners. Specifically, employer involvement in STC is now fairly common, with greatest involvement at the high school level.

Employers tend to participate in low-intensity career awareness activities, such as career fairs, more frequently than other kinds of activities. In contrast to employers, the case study LPs reported very limited participation by labor organizations in STC activities.

The involvement of CBOs in STC shows yet a different pattern from the participation of either employers or labor organizations. Engagement of CBOs seems to fall into two distinct categories: either they serve as STC leaders (as demonstrated in a few LPs), or they english essay help online show limited involvement. Finally, a significant percentage of high schools within the case study LPs have established relationships with postsecondary institutions. Most of these relationships are with community colleges rather than with four-year institutions. The most common connections are dual enrollment and articulation agreements, reflecting pre-STC connections as opposed to new innovative strategies such as K-16 sequencing. Though it is difficult to attribute these and other secondary-postsecondary connections directly to STC (as opposed to other initiatives such as Tech Prep and A-G admissions requirements), STC does appear to provide a rationale and structure to support existing connections, and teachers, administrators, and employers generally view these connections positively.

How Has STC Affected Student Preparation for Postsecondary Education and Career Entry?

Participation in STC strongly influences certain key attitudes and some important behaviors, as well. Specifically, participating in STC appears to have moderately consistent and positive effects for helping students know the skills, education, and training that are needed for success in the careers they are considering.

Similarly, the evidence shows that STC participation positively impacts student engagement in learning by consistently making school more interesting and meaningful as well as helping students understand why doing well in school is important. The PLUS analyses finding of positive relationships between a number of measures of STC involvement with student 100 attendance rates is further evidence that STC participation leads to higher engagement of students in learning. On the other hand, STC participation has demonstrated few consistent effects on student confidence about reaching career goals or about preparation for further education. However, a few LPs demonstrated positive effects of STC on some of these outcomes, including academic achievement. In addition, results from two of the PLUS LPs provide limited, but suggestive, evidence that participation in a career-focused curriculum leads to higher completion rates for A-G requirements.

Similarly, 1 of the 5 PLUS studies demonstrated that participation in a career-focused curriculum leads more students to complete Algebra II. These results college essay editing services may have resulted from unique implementation practices or school circumstances. Perhaps the most significant contribution of STC to systemic change is a clear shift toward greater focus on career awareness as a key element of the education experience provided to students.

In some ways, this finding is not surprising since compared to the range of possible STC activities, career awareness activities are much easier to infuse into the curriculum than other more intensive activities. Moreover, investing in career awareness activities is less costly than supporting new instructional delivery models, such as academies.

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Finally, career awareness is the arena of STC activities in which employers are more likely to become and remain engaged. Even though career awareness activities are considered low-intensity STC activities, they have demonstrated important constructive effects on particular student attitudes and behaviors. The implications of this key finding are considerable. First, they validate what many LPs and schools are already doing, verifying the effectiveness of offering career awareness activities to the full range of students.

In particular, LPs and schools with limited STC english essay help online resources should be heartened by this empirical finding that investing in career awareness activities (as opposed to the more expensive intensive activities) is a worthwhile strategy with demonstrated impact. Second, other systemic STC features can english essay help online be built upon the foundation provided by career awareness activities. For example, a strategic, yet comprehensive STC approach may be to target career awareness activities (e. This differentiated STC approach is summarized below. The approach suggested above reflects this perspective. The limited time frame and resources of the national and state STC movement make it unrealistic to expect that the systemic changes envisioned for STC would be completed at thesis assistance this time. More importantly, many LPs are taking strategic steps to sustain and expand the effort expended to date.

As described in a previous chapter, these strategies fall into six distinct categories: 1.

Establishing solid relationships between schools and employers 3. Making programmatic changes to support STC at the school and district levels 4. Making structural changes to support STC at the school and district levels 5.

Selectively focusing sustainability efforts on aspects that show promise Does use of these strategies within LPs mean that STC — as a system — will be sustained? California is making important strides toward sustaining STC, however STC is not yet a comprehensive reform approach that engages all students in the state. Moreover, there are considerable barriers that seriously impede the development and sustainability of a STC system. Among the most overwhelming barriers are lack of funding, limited support among some key stakeholders (e.

Although the sustainability of a comprehensive STC system in California is not supported by the findings of this statewide evaluation, the findings do suggest that some key STC elements are likely to be sustained based on local needs and efforts. Low intensity career awareness activities that are relatively easy and cost effective to implement (e. Unfortunately the future of more intense STC activities and programs (e. Recommendations There are numerous recommendations that might be offered to strengthen STC in the future.

However, we would like to offer what we consider to be the most critical to the success of STC.

It is our hope that by offering and describing in detail a reasonable number of recommendations, they will warrant serious consideration by policymakers, educators, industry, and other supporters of STC. In this environment, schools and teachers need to understand how STC can support increased student achievement relative to important standards before they can fully embrace STC. This calls for a well-articulated vision of STC and its significance to student achievement that is persuasive to schools and teachers. This vision must be supported by convincing evidence of the impact of STC on students. Furthermore, there is evidence that STC positively impacts attendance and preparation for postsecondary education as measured by increased completion of english essay help online University of California A-G admissions requirements. A concrete way to demonstrate the relevance of STC in this era of high-stakes testing and accountability is to incorporate STC into state and local assessment and accountability systems.

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