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This section of the essay do my paper for money discusses and illustrates three important ways supporters can use scaffolding sequences of moves: asking a seqtience of good qves- tions. These consolidations have been identified by reviewing the collaborative planning sessions (in-class observation, video tape, audio-tape, or transcriptions of the sessions) of many high school and college stu- dents involved in collaborative planning. Asking a sequence of good questions Asking a sequence of good questions is one im- portant way a supporter can consolidate moves— not framing one or two good questions, but developing a sequence of good questions.
Much of the research discussed in the preceding section stresses the impor- tance of questions. For example, a diverse group of researchers in collaboration — Geer and her coL agues (1985, 1985), Matsuhashi and Gordon (1985), Scardamalia and Berei ter (1 987), Burnet t (1 988a, 1 988b), Dipardo and Freedman (1987, 1988), Brown and Palinscar (1989), Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989), Sharan (1990), and Slavin (1990)— all indicate that questioning plays a critical role in successful collabora- tion. Additionally, observations of collaborative plan- ning sessions indicate that learning to ask good ques- tions is one area students consistently need help with. The excerpt in Example 5 provides the questions and comments of an effective supporter, a high school senior, as he works with a particularly unfocused writer, a classmate planning a character sketch of her eighth- grade teacher.
The ex- ample shows an effective (engaged, involved) sup- porter who uses a variety of moves as he offers content and planning prompts, general encouragement, con- tent suggestions, critical observations and challenges, and gentle direction.
In Example 6, an excerpt from a collaborative planning session of three high school students plan- ning their character sketches, shows tho questions of the two supporters and the responses by the writer. Penny, the writer, is working on her plan with support- ers Casey and Jason.
Penny has decided to write her CoLl,ABORAnVE PLANNING: CoNCKPTS, PROCESSES, AND ASSIGNMENTS 33 SI 1 : Well, how - okay, go ahead, tell me some more. S13: Well Vm really not sure about your impression of this guy. Did you My earlier that he prepared you for high school? SI 7: So you feel like he was a teacher who was not just concerned with his content, but he was concerned with kids? S23: It sounds like you appreciated him as a person in the interaction— you never met anybody like him.
S39: So what are you going to do with the fact that he punched this kid when he lost his temper?
S35: Well do you think his methods came as a result of well thought out planning because he really wanted to move from the textbook and really see real life application, or do you think he was lazy customized term papers and it was easier to come in, rather than giving good content, it was easier to come in and just say, you know, talk about feelings? You might use him as a symbol of what a good teacher is and is not. You could use this character to build a conclusion about what good teaching is. Example 5: A sequence of questions asked by an effective supporter character sketch about Milancho, her exchange stu- dent "sister" whom she spent ten months with during the previous school year.
The suggestions they offer build on the ideas Penny has already brought up: Maybe you can make liberation a part of her adaptability. This contribution or elaboration may chal- lenge the writer and urge reconsideration of rhetorical decisions as shown in Example 7 on the next page. In this excerpt, two college juniors, Ritika and Kirk, have just started workingon a recommendation memo Ritika is planning for an advanced writing class.
The excerpt shows the writer , Ritika, considering the audience for the reconunendation memo she is writing. Kirk, challenges her deci- sion to consider audience before content Well, I think you should decide h hat you want to say before you decide who you should send it to (SIO), he also questions her consideration of Judith as an appropriateaudience(S12). Ritika explains her decision to send Judith a carbon copy of the memo and to exclude Lou (W13). Is it about her kindness as a sibling, or about her? S47 Jason Is your dominant impression going to be her adaptability or her liberation? S49 Jason Maybe you can make liberation a part of her adaptability. SI 6 Kirk: I think you should really, um, take him into account.
Effective supporters can create and strengthen an awareness of social context. Simply the act of working in pairs or small groups offers a Idnd of support that helps students realize that learning about writing (or anything else) is not an isolated act Both the struggle of learning to write and the writing itself are situated in an environment, a social context, that influences and is influencedby the writer and the writing. Collaborative interaction with an engaged or involved supporter removes a sense of isolation and reinforces the idea that writers and writing are socially situated. This awareness may lead to consensus between the collabo- rators or it may "be a powerful instrument for students to generate differences, to identify the systems of au- thority that organize these differences, and to customized term papers transform the relations of power that determine who may speak and what counts as a meaningful statement" (Trimbur, 1989, p. In other words, awareness of social con- text creates a sense of community and support (Bruffee, 1984), but it also provokes conflict that, I believe, may lead to a productive exploration of issues that would otherwise be ignored. Awareness of social context also provides an opportunity for inexperienced writers to define their task and exchange ideas, thus reducing problems that might not be so easily managed by them working individually. In this essay, I have suggested that the supporter provides a way to talk about classroom collaboration and offered examples of ways in which the supporter can provide a focus for teachers and students alike as they explore and analyze collaboration.