Customized research paper

The diffus- ion of nervous energy which characterizes childhood affects small muscles more than large ones. Children may be seen in a schoolroom exhibiting fair control of the large muscles of the trunk, while twitchings of the face, contractions of the mouth, or restless hands and feet give clear evidence of dif- fusion in the nerves controlling the smaller muscles of the extremities. It follows that the fingers will be less easily con- trolled than the large muscles of the shoulders, and, conse- quently, better results will be obtained from children using the whole arm movement from the shoulder.

Another consideration will bear out our contention. Four series of tests were made, the arm being customized research paper clamped in such a way that in the first the fingers only could be used, in the second the wrist, in the third the elbow, and in the fourth the shoulder. As many taps as possi- ble were made in each way in five seconds.

The following tables give his results as far as they are of value here : Per cent, of 16 yr. Fingers 57 63 43 37 Wrist 64 65 36 35 Elbow 72 75 28 25 Shoulder 69 71 31 29 From this table it is apparent that the shoulder and elbow have a noticeably greater percentage of their sixteen-year-old efficiency at six than the wrist or the fingers. We may easily infer that customized research paper the shoulder in the six-year-old child is relatively more efficient and better organized than the fingers, and, therefore, it is logical to take advantage of this and allow the beginner to use shoulder muscles rather than finger mus- cles in the writing movements.

There are, however, certain objections which will prevent us from admitting the freearm movement as the most satisfac- tory in later writing.

This, while not conclusive evidence that the finger movements are necessary or best, at least suggests that it is natural for people to use them unless rigidly trained to exclude them. Further, it is obvious that the freearm movement is the most fatiguing as it requires the expenditure of sufficient energy to move the whole arm without any sup- port save the hand. This is especially true when rapidity is required, as the violent arm movement shakes the whole body. Free arjn writing cannot go above a rather low speed limit without causing fatigue and discomfort from these causes. We have shown that the freearm movement favours large, free writing. When smaller and more accurate writing is 36 desired the freearm movement must give place to arm move- ment with rest, since it is much easier to make an accurate movement when the arm and hand are supported. The extreme type of finger movement is obviously defec- tive and will demand only a brief discussion. It puts an ex- cessive strain upon the fingers, forcing them to do the work more easily done by the arm, and, consequently, is a very fatiguing method of writing.

It is made by lowering and raising the hand turned far over to the left, by the alternate flexion and extension of the wrist. This movement produces a less cramped writing than the excessive finger movement, but the turning of the hand over to its left side prevents an easy, uninterrupted movement across the line of writing. The difference between the arm movement with rest and the combined arm and finger movement is obvious. The former attempts to exclude finger movements entirely.

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The arm does the complete work of writing, not only carrying the hand across the page, but also forming the letters in detail. Certainly their exclusion requires an amount of training far in excess of that usually given in school. It seems natural that the fingers, with their magnificent equipment of delicate nerves and their superior flexibility, should take a share in the finer work customized research paper of letter forming, while the arm, by rotating at the elbow, carries the hand across the page, and by its up and down movement upon the muscle pad forms the ground- work of the letters.

Second, the rolling movement of the arm upon the muscle pad of the forearm produces a firmness and evenness of line, and the fact that the movement is produced from a centre at a considerable distance from the pen-point results in regularity of slant. In our analysis of the writing movement it was clearly shown that the best position for the forearm is at right angles to the paper and lying along its central vertical line. It also appeared that the elbow should be kept well away from the body to insure an easy rotation of the arm to carry the hand across the paper and to counteract any tendency to shift the arm by lifting it from the shoulder. We may add the obvious fact that the body of the writer should face the desk squarely, as this position ensures a good view of the writing without any twisting or bending of the neck or trunk. The centre of the line of writing should lie directly in the centre of the visual field when the eyes are at rest. This avoids the inevit- able strain which comes from continually turning the eyes or head excessively in order to follow the writing. These consid- erations determine at once the position of the paper. If the pen is held by the thumb in opposition to the first two fingers while the hand rests upon the little finger and its left side, observation shows that the line of movement pro- duced by a contraction of the index finger is at right angles to the edge of the desk. To slant the stroke further to the left requires an inconvenient extension of the hand and fingers.

The extension of the middle line of the body fixes the line in which the centre of the line of writing should fall.

The elbow held well away from the side, with the forearm bent at almost right angles to the upper arm and extending to the extended middle line of the body fixes the centre of the line of writing. The position of the paper is then definitely fixed by the fact that its lower edge should be at right angles to tha 38 forearm. The left arm shifts the paper upwards to keep the centre of the line of writing opposite the middle line of the body, while to incline it further to the right necessitates too great a contraction. This principle, taken in conjunction with the foregoing, at once determines the slant of the writing. The average person using the writing position described above, will make his let- ters at a slope of approximately thirty degrees from the ver- tical.

He found that most of the movements used in writing followed the direction of the radii in quad- rants I.

Fur ther, his experiments showed that rapidity of writing varies directly as the increase in the degree of deviation from the Y Y, axis.

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