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Planning in Writing: The Cognition of a Constructive Process. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at Uni- versity of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon.

Planning text together: The role of critical reflection in shident collaboration. Ber- keley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon. Uncovering conceptions of purpose of work in the composition classroom. Ber- keley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon. His constructive planning strategy leads him to set his own goals for the "show-me" readers he imagines and to elaborate his intentions with more specific goalsand plans for the custom writing paper service text. Later he will recall these goals and monitor his progress on goals 48, 49, 50. Iseeall approaches to collaboration as having at least one thing in common: peer support for student writers who are learning and using new concepts. Regardless of the form collaboration takes, the range of supporter behaviors seems to remain the same.

Thus, students might be more effective collaborators if they learn more about working with a supporter and as a supporter. CoKaboration in the custom writing paper service writing classroom is often viewed as a panacea for the problems students have with the work of writing: identifying fruitful ideas, creating workable plans, generating text, soliciting responses to their writing, and revising their own writing. But as frequently as custom writing paper service collaboration works, it also has problems that lead to frustration in both teachers and students. In this paper, I attempt to reduce some of the frustration by cutting across theories, research studies, and disciplines to identify an element of collaboration — the supporter— that serves as common ground for exploration, both to advance knowledge of collaboration in writing and to help students be more effective collaborators. Supporters are collaborators who prompt, challenge, direct, and contribute ideas to writers at any time during the writing process. Supporters can be temporary collaborators (not responsible for genera ting any text), team members, or coauthors. By defining the supporter as an element in all face-to-face and electronic collaboration, I encourage the development of a consistent vocabulary for describing the actions and interactions of collaborators and for discussing a diverse body of research- Equally important, learning about supporters may help us answer questions not only about how collaborators manage the work of wri ting and handle rhetorical elements but also how they deal with the context of the collaboration. Collaboration is based on the idea that working together may be more productive than working individually. Underlying most classroom collabora- tion is the notion of a zone of proximal development, first proposed by Vygotsky in the 1920s, which suggests that support or assistance enables a person to complete tasks that would be too difficult to do individually.

Collaboration is too often spoken of as if it were a single type of activity that writing classes can use.

Thoseinvestigating collabo- ration in writing classrooms do not fit neatly and conveniently into a single category.

They approach their work with different backgrounds and biases, COLI. In this essay, I propose that the role of supporters is critical for examining this disparate body of theory and research.

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In general, theorists and researchers have identi- fied a number of benefits for writers who work collaboratively, that is with supporters. However, I believe that for less experienced secondary and college essaywriting service writers who tend to neglect rhetorical elements, having a izupporter may be helpful even for fairly straightforward orVoutine writing tasks. Sometimes what is obvious to a teacher or experienced student writer is obscure or even invisible to those who are less experienced. Supporters (even those who are not themselves skillful writers) can help less exf)eri- enced custom writing paper service writers consider elements of writing that usually are ignored or given only cursory attention. Support- ers seem to be most helpful if they balance a variety of verbal moves in purposeful sequences, including neu- tral prompts, challenging questions, and problem- solving that generates suggestions for the writer. The structure of collabora- tive writing groups also varies, from collaborations that are structured by the teacher, with assigned tasks. Regardless of the form collaboration takes, the range of supporter behaviors seems custom writing paper service to re- main the same. Thus, students might be more effective collaborators if they learn more about working xvith a supporter and as a supporter. Although suptx)rters are common to all collaboration, they differ in the ways they interact with writers. I detine supporters as unengaged, engaged, or involved, thus giving teach- ers, researchers, and theorists a way to cheap essay writer service characterize and talk about the supporter role. All supporters, though more typically those who are engaged or involved, have a repertoire of verbal moves that form the components of their interactions with writers. However, knowing about these moves is not enough for students become effective supporters because in isolation, these verbal moves are inadequate for explaining the interac- tion of collaborators. Learning toconsolidate their repertoire into purposeful sequences can help students analyze what they are doing as sup- porters as well as anticipate what they can do. In this section of the essay, I exam- ine the interplay of engagement and involvement as two primary distinctions between unsuccessful and suc- cessful supporters. I define engagement as the atten- tion a supporter gives to a writer, determined by com- ments and questions that indicate active listening. In- 24 volvement requires engagement, but it moves beyond by making the supporter an active participant who challenges the writer and offers thoughtful, purpose- ful, and productive contributions. I explore distinc- tions between ineffective supporters who are generally neither engaged nor involved and effective supporters who are generally engaged or involved. Unengaged supporters are not active participants in the planning. As a result, they make few relevant or productive contributions and seldomprobe or challenge inadequately developed ideas raised by writers. Example 1, an excerpt from the collaborative planning session between two high school sophomores, clearly shows that the supporter, Qay, is unengaged.

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