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Cosmicai Again, the mode of aggregation of many of the forces. Should this prove to be the case, it would in no way derogate from the universality of some law of aggregation of matter, that a different species of law may prevail in those vast distant portions of the universe, which, when it shall have been investigated, may prove a more comprehensive kind of force, of which gravi- tation is but one form or modification. There may no doubt be a practical convenience Distinc- tions tem- in retaining some distinctions of this kind to preserve porary and provisional. But in contemplating the unity of sciences, an ception as to geology, exception has been alleged in reference to GEOLOGY. The entire relation in which it stands to other branches of inductive science, and even its inductive character altogether, has been sometimes disparaged. Comte has most unaccountably denied it any place whatever in the scheme of " positive philosophy," and possibly some hypotheses which have continued to be occasionally indulged in, in connection with that science, might not unnaturally have influenced him in entertaining a prejudice against it. Not real : Yet this science, when rightly pursued, is emi- geology custom research paper services an inductive nently inductive. Yet some seem to have supposed that the reason- The evi- dence of ing of geology ought to rest on something distinct geology not different in from that of the experimental sciences, inasmuch nature from that of as it refers to events which have so long since passed ther sciences. The investigation and restoration of the remains of a Saurian imbedded millions of ages ago, is an operation of precisely the same kind as the post-mortem examination of the subject of yesterday.

Uniformity The inductive philosopher is convinced that the of nature in time and universal subordination of causes must hold Ood space.

Geology ap- More custom research paper services recently, the investigations of Mr. Hopkins proximat- ing to an h ave tended to connect geology even with dynamics ESSAY I. If, then, from the examination of pheno- mena actually existing) and going on around us, we turn to the past, the rules and principles of inductive investigation will apply with equal force and pro- priety to phenomena which teach us the successive and gradual changes which the crust of the globe has undergone, and lead us to trace them as far back as we can towards its origin. The great principle which forms the basis of all influence of time ad- inductive geology the analogy of existing causes mitted. It would not fully vindicate its own power, if it did not include in the general analogy the influence E 4 56 UNITY OF SCIENCES.

Miseoncep- Real inductive principles thus tend to custom research paper services reduce to tion of past duration, order those phenomena which have custom research paper services appeared to some to present so much more strongly marked vicissi- tudes only because we are apt to crowd the events together in the long perspective, and measure them too much according to our confined ideas of dura- tion. But in the spirit of true induction we have no ofanunin- ductive right to imagine that any of the events or changes character, of past epochs, however apparently inexplicable, can be rationally set down as events of a different kind and order from those now going on, or as in- terruptions of the settled order of natural causes.

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Difference of opinion indeed may subsist as to Uniformi- tarianism the greater or less frequency or intensity of volcanic and cata- strophism. But these, while they are on all hands allowed to be fair and custom research paper services legitimate topics of philosophical debate and inductive inquiry, would be most unduly exaggerated if supposed to mark any such real or fundamental difference in principle as to constitute two really distinct geological schools. They are questions merely of degree, not of kind or of principle. Yet, in the language often used, the (f uniformi- 58 UNITY OF SCIENCES. If the terms are to be understood with any such difference of sense as that thus implied, I conceive it appears that the two theories respectively occupy totally different grounds. Geology thus kept pure from the introduction of fanciful and unphilosophical hypotheses eminently conforms to the type of unity which binds together the whole range of inductive science. The unity of sciences is not impaired, but insured Revolutions in science and promoted, by those mutations which any of its only pro- gressive. All real science is in a state of perpetual change. These changes have now and then been fundamental and revolutionary, and similar fluctuations are perpetually going on in lesser details. But this in no way makes science itself unstable or fluctuating. The change is always of one character, and that no other than the very nature of the inductive philosophy requires : a change from anomaly to regularity, from hetero- geneity to analogy, from confusion to order, from interruption to continuity, from artificial dogmatism to the simplicity of nature. Every branch of science approaches perfection and Discoveries superseded stability as it more fully approaches to and realises only by greater im- the grand principle of unity. Every philosophic research or conclusion, at pre- sent of the highest importance, must expect to be reduced to a subordinate place : every method now most justly esteemed must look to be superseded by greater improvements : but nothing will deprive such really great discoveries of their place in the page of history their lustre will but be increased by the brilliancy of newer results, to which they were the necessary preliminaries. Advance Most sciences had their origin in the clouds of from mysti- cism to mysticism, and thus occasionally long retain some reason.

Astronomy arose out of astrology, chemistry out of alchemy, and geology out of a theological cosmogony. Geology, indeed, being the youngest of the inductive sciences, has naturally in the course of its rapid growth, within a brief period, exhibited more of those changes from mysti- cism towards rationalism than any other branch.

With an increasing recognition of true inductive principles, we have witnessed progressive improve- ments in the philosophic character of the theory and candid retractations of opinions once warmly upheld, chiefly on grounds alien from those of science. Those who continue really to indulge in the visions 62 UNITY OF SCIENCES. But the influence of such artificial theories we may be assured will in time entirely disappear, and all true cultivators of science will come to regard such distinction of schools in no other sense than as we now speak of Ptolemaists and Copernicans, Cartesians and Newtonians : these anticipations, however, are far from being yet generally realised.

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