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Arab students, for instance, tend to transfer the culture of their LI writing conventions into their L2 writing. Although the writing conventions and style of Arabic language are different in some ways from the English ones, students are always tempted to use them in L2 writing.

ESL custom research paper service writers find writing more challenging than other language skills as composing in the second language demands a number of cognitive and linguistic processes and strategies. Zainuddin and Moore (2003) pointed out that the notion of culturally constructed rhetorical traditions and patterns is one of the key challenges that has been indicated by contrastive rhetoric studies.

Baker (2008) argued that sociocultural and critical theories are fundamental for ESL instructors to understand how multilingual and multicultural students approach various writing tasks. Consequently, writing should receive more attention in ESL classes in order to prepare the learners to cope with the communicative demands of real life situations. Undoubtedly, the purpose of teaching writing skill is to prepare ESL learners to become better writers. Exposing them to the writing process itself has been viewed as a better way for achieving this goal (Ismail, 2011).

However, the influence of LI cannot be completely ignored when teaching students to write in L2. Research dealing with both LI and L2 writing has reported different findings. He reported that Saudi ESL students tend to use the same self-regulation when they write in both LI (Arabic) and L2 (English). Additionally, it was found research paper outline help that those students who obtained high scores in both language writing tasks managed to demonstrate high achievements in their self-regulation skills. A summary of their findings indicated that there were significant differences in length, structure complexity and accuracy between L1 and L2 writing. These studies along with others reported the possibility of transferring writing strategies from LI situations to L2 contexts. Qi (1998), for example, found that the woman in the study switched to the L1 when capturing the beginning custom research paper service of an idea, when developing a thought, when verifying lexical meaning, and when her working memory was overloaded.

It was also revealed that the tasks used in the study required a high level of knowledge and they were also associated with language switches. The researcher concluded that such tasks may even have the power to provoke language switches. Within the same direction, Stapa and Abdulmajid (2009) reported that students who initially used their LI to generate ideas demonstrated better performance when they composed their essay in L2. Those studies reported that L2 writers use their LI while writing in ESL. Similarly, other researchers have confirmed the same results that ESL writers use their first language while 174 www. Another factor that impacts L2 writing is referred to in the literature as a culture transfer. It was found that the negative transfer of LI exceeded the positive one in L2 writing.

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LI always impacts L2 writing as adult ESL students have already developed their writing skills and experience in their first language. She argued that cultural interference represents a real problem for Arab students to enhance their writing skill in English. Abu Rass (2011) concluded that LI culture plays a key role in the second language acquisition and learning and hence it should be given a higher consideration when planning an ESL program. The overall findings revealed that Arab students transfer the style and mode of writing letters in Arabic into L2 writing. Many Arab student writers tend to be indirect in their expression and they write detailed or long introduction. They are mainly influenced by their sociolinguistic background and they may assume that their audience shares the same experience with them.

Al-Khatib (ibid) also found that religious factors play crucial role in the convention of writing personal letters in Arabic. The question posed by Cohen and Brooks-Carson (2001) is that whether thinking through the first language and even writing out a text first in the LI may actually enhance quality writing production in L2. The researchers found that two-thirds of the students performed better in the direct-writing task and one-third of the students did better in the translated writing task. Another finding was that grammar rating across writing modes was not found to be significantly different. The students also reported that they thought in English most of the time custom research paper service custom research paper service while they were writing their essays. In a study about the use of translation, Uzawa (1996) reported results in favor of the translated assignments. Twenty two Japanese students studying ESL in Canada participated in the study. All students were asked to perform three tasks (writing direct essay in L2, writing an essay in LI and then translating it into L2).

Thinking Aloud Protocol, interview techniques and writing samples were the main tools used for collecting data.

Uzawa (1996) reported that students showed better use of the language in the translated essay than they did in custom research paper service the LI essay and the direct essay. Also the attention patterns in the direct and LI tasks were found to be similar but they were different in the translated task. In their study, Wang and Wen (2002) confirmed that the L2 writing process is a bilingual event since the second language writers have two languages (LI and L2) at their disposal when they are attempting to compose a text in L2. However, the central problem is that it is not clear how the use of LI is related to the occurrence of different cognitive activities in a second language writing, such as planning and generating ideas.

The reason behind first language use and the type of cognitive activities employed while writing is still not clear. The area of language learning strategies in general and writing strategies in particular have recently received some attention.

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