Custom law essays

Modern cognitive psychology has stimulated university teachers to give greater attention to the importance of understanding and meaning as contrasted with recognition and reproduction as a goal of learning and higher education. This book gives us not only a great deal of research evidence with respect to the ways in which students achieve understand- ing but also has clear implications for methods of teaching and testing which help students find meaning — meaning which can be retrieved and used as a basis for further learning custom law essays and problem solving. Faculty members uniformly think of their courses as contributing to the development of thinking that is more analytic or critical.

Yet in practice we often teach in ways that direct our students to rote memorization, and then blame the students for the fact that they have not achieved our objectives. I have often said in lectures that professors frequently confuse difficulty of a test with high standards of educational value, and that it is easy to make a test difficult without making it a more effective measure of achievement.

This book has helped me to see what I was fuzzily describ- ing. Higher education, on the other hand, is generally concerned with introducing conceptions of knowledge involving greater understanding and analytic ability. This finding illustrates the value of the methods used by these authors. What the authors do is to illustrate ways in which learning occurs and how learning h been facilitated by teachers. Readers are then left to work custom law essays out for themselves how the insights may be applied to their own situations. In short, the range and depth of the book represent a i major contribution to our understanding of university teaching and learm g. Preface The scope of this book is both broad and narrow.

It is about learning, and contains ideas of fundamental importance to all those who are interested in how people learn. The book has a narrow focus insofar as it presents the results of research from a series of related studies into the way students learn in higher education. Its claim custom law essays to generality, however, stems from the radical nature of both the research methodology and the emerging conceptual frameworks.

It provides a way of understanding student learning which has very direct implications for teachers and Students in schools as well as colleges and universities, and also for psychologists interested in the phenomenon of human learning in its own right. The similarities in the types of learning demanded of students attending universities and colleges in different countries make the findings of this research relevant across most educational systems. Or at least the effects of any major differences in the systems can be readily inferred from the variety of educational situations described by the twelve authors. Their experiences cover both Swedish and British Universities and polytechnics, and both conventional institutions and the Open University with its emphasis on distance learning.

The main teaching methods — lectures, tutorials, practical work and comments on returned assignments — will be found throughout tertiary education — and in a modified form across the lenior classes of secondary education or high schools. The theme of this book is thus of relevance and potential interest to educators in different countries and of different age groups — although it applies most directly to teaching and learning in higher education.

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The evidence presented in the book derives mainly custom law essays from interviews. Thus there is little in the way of complex statistics which would be Off-putting to readers who are not familiar with social science research. PREFACE xii level of writing and the amount of detail presented is intended to make the ideas accessible to a wider audience. There has also been a considerable effort put into creating overall coherence in the monograph. Coherence was easier than usual to obtain because similar theoretical perspectives and research approaches had been adopted by all the contributors. But in addition it was possible to bring the contributors together on two occasions, thanks to financial support from both the Swedish and the British Social Science Research Councils, to discuss first the structure of the book and then to have lengthy and detailed discussions of the draft chapters. The result is a research monograph with a difference: we hope that difference shows. But in this chapter that experience is examined first from perspectives adopted by other groups — lecturers, psychologists, and educational researchers in an attempt to explore the meaning of learning as it is understood by these different interested groups.

Each group and, ultimately, each individual, has an interpretation of reality which is in some sense unique. And yet effective communication depends on shared assumptions, definitions, and understanding.

Out of this paradox both teachers and researchers struggle to make sense of the contrasting experiences of learning reported by those involved in the process of education. While earlier research tended to use ready-made concepts from psychology and sociology to explain differences in student attainment, the new research reported here develops a set of concepts altogether more accessible to teachers and students and firmly rooted in their common experiences. These concepts provide a radically different perspective on learning which should bring about a better, shared, understanding of learning processes Which are currently interpreted very differently by these two groups. The research focus of this book is higher education. Almost all the detailed evidence in subsequent chapters is drawn from that particular Setting, and yet implications, in a general way at least, can be seen more broadly. In every educational system one of the prime considerations of idministrators, teachers, and students alike, at each age level, is what we call the outcome of learning — what students can demonstrate of their Increases in knowledge and changes in understanding as a result of their experiences in school or college. This book explores what students learn and how that learning takes place. Educational research can be seen as careful, systematic attempts at achieving a better understanding of the educational process, with the aim Of improving its effectiveness.

Our task is thus to describe more clearly how learning takes place in higher education, and to point out how teaching and assessment affect the quality of that learning. All the evidence presented in the main body of the book comes from studies carried out either in Sweden or Britain, and yet the similarities in the forms of teaching and learning in higher education across the world suggest that our main message should strike home to lecturers and students in every country.

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