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Secondly, whereas courses open to all teachers may have been refined over many years, courses specifically designed for the EPD scheme were more likely to have been staged for the first time over the course of the pilot and might need to develop over time.

Indeed, such courses did achieve higher ratings for impact on practice in the second and third years of the pilot than they had done in its first year. Thirdly, EPD-specific courses were, at times, designed to have a longer term impact what is the best online essay writing service on practice - for example, when teachers prepared for threshold - rather than the immediate impact measured here.

Comparatively lower ratings were given to professional networking and being observed by a colleague, although well over half of teachers who had taken part in these activities still rated them highly in terms of the effect on their practice. Around 80 per cent of teachers in each year of the pilot who had engaged in these activities believed that they had actually changed their practice. This section explored how teacher autonomy worked in practice. Analysis of the case-study interviews showed that in the vast majority of cases, the EPD teacher and their mentor had together planned the professional development activities. In a smaller number of cases, the EPD teacher had been entirely self-directed, without significant input from their school. Thus, thesis consulting allowing teachers their autonomy was not of detriment to schools, rather, EPD teachers were mindful of school needs, and ensured that their professional development activities would also profit their colleagues and their school.

There was evidence of an increased awareness of the more varied possibilities for professional development activities as the EPD scheme progressed, as substantially more teachers reported involvement in less traditional forms of professional development in years 2 and 3 than was the case in year 1.

In terms of their relevance and their effects on practice, teachers rated these activities very highly. In all three years of the EPD pilot, teacher respondents also rated courses open to all and opportunities to observe other practitioners as particularly relevant to their individual needs and effective in terms of the impact on their practice. This section examines the influence of the schools in which participating teachers worked, in determining the effectiveness and outcomes of the EPD scheme. Throughout, it seeks to highlight examples of good practice from the EPD scheme, which may prove valuable to schools in terms of providing or supporting professional development custom essays writing for teachers early in their careers or, more broadly, for all teachers. The discussion is presented in the following sections: Section 4. In addition, in year 3, schools where all of the teachers gave high ratings for impacts on their pupils and on their contribution to colleagues and the school as a whole, were also identified. In 2004, the only characteristic by which schools scoring highly for the overall effects of EPD on teachers differed from the remainder was the size of the school and this was true only of secondary schools. Case-study interviews in large secondary schools suggested that supporting large numbers of 12 Schools with only one EPD teacher were omitted from this analysis. The results further highlighted that having a mentor was important in determining the outcomes of EPD for schools as a whole. In schools where all teachers rated the impact of EPD on their contribution to the school highly, EPD teachers were significantly more likely to have a mentor.

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That the custom essays writing mentor played a vital role in the transposition of teacher effects to the school as a whole, was discussed in section 2. Further issues related to mentoring are addressed separately in section 4. These aspects will now be considered in more detail in order to try to understand the philosophies and practices underlying the approaches to professional development that were instrumental in achieving high outcomes for EPD. In particular, we will attempt to examine the approaches to professional development and to EPD in the case-study schools achieving high custom essays writing levels of impact for teachers, for pupils and for the wider school community. Attitudes and practices related to professional development As Part two made plain, outcomes from EPD were high across the board, for teachers and pupils especially, but also for schools. More detailed analysis of the interview data from case-study schools sought to ascertain the contextual factors - i. In considering the interview data from the whole case-study sample and through more detailed analysis of data from the highest-scoring schools, the research identified three contextual factors, in particular, that appeared to be instrumental in delivering outcomes for teachers, pupils and schools. In looking at the implementation and experience of the EPD scheme in case-study schools, it was evident that, in the majority of cases, positive experiences of EPD were apparent in those schools where there were clear examples of positive attitudes and practice. When asked to describe aspects of good practice in terms of professional development in their school, many interviewees focused on the traditional custom essays writing route of attending external training courses. Indeed, the highest-scoring schools commonly held a spirit of innovation regarding professional learning. There was frequently a culture of reflective professional inquiry, of collaboration and the promotion of group, as well as individual, learning.

In addition, these schools were all active in pursuing professional learning beyond the school, through links with other schools, the LEA and various HEIs. Teachers in the highest scoring schools described an environment in which they were expected to take responsibility for their professional learning and felt supported and encouraged to do so. They also described a leadership team who were quick to recognise developing interests and capitalise on them for the benefit of the school: for example, through creating a leadership role, or promoting further development opportunities. In the highest-scoring schools, the member of staff with responsibility for professional development was said by colleagues who were interviewed to be passionate about professional learning. They are always very interested in teachers who want to get on. How can we go about sharing that and discussing it and debating it and talking about it? Organisation I think the strength is in the organisational skills of the leadership team.

Something like professional development has to be planned in.

We have very close links with the school development semice as well (Coordinator, primary, year 3 case-study data).

Balancing the needs of the teacher and of the school EPD coordinators in the case-study schools were asked about the extent to which they had sought to balance the needs of the individual teachers and those of the school as a custom essays writing whole, and about mechanisms by which such a balance had been achieved.

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