Custom essays cheap

Should the course of instruction in writing be preceded by one custom essays cheap in drawing? Here we have a hint which we shall find substantiated from other sources. The Fundamental Bases for the Development of Hand- writing IN THE Individual. FEW psychological developments of recent times have growth of interest in child-study. Their endeavours have resulted in the accumulation of a mass of valuable knowledge — an accumulation which, though still far from exhaustive, forms a rich store from which the educationist may draw, which custom essays cheap already has caused many revolutionary changes in our meth- ods of education and bids fair to bring many others. The child has been studied as an individual with inalienable rights to development in the way which is most proper and natural for him rather than from the view point of the adult who sees in the child only a twig to be bent to his desire. On the whole, the result has been beneficial for education, and if occasion- ally such study has brought a certain over-emphasis of child- rights, and has resulted in a tendency which may be seen in many of our schools to-day to make all school-work "play," "pleasure" and "interest," and to forget that "discipline," "effort" and "work" are equally or even more important, it is but a natural reaction from the earlier days of tyranny in child-training. It is the purpose of the present chapter to summarize the results of child study in so far as they have a vital bearing upon the acquisition of handwriting. The course of our development is conditioned by our environment and nurture. He found that she became very fond of drawing as soon as imitation began to function well, or from the nine- teenth month to the middle of the twenty-seventh. Such scribbling, though apparently aimless, really is of considerable importance. From the vast number of movements learned by such spontaneous scribbling those which are of service in writing or drawing must be selected and recombined into new series at a later stage of develop- ment. In the twenty-seventh month Baldwin found that his child began to show signs of realizing a connection between the movements of her hand and some image in her own conscious- ness.

She began to make movements consciously directed to- wards reproducing that image.

The child so learned to direct movement to a desired end by imitation and by select- ing serviceable movements from the mass of those at its dis- posal. Such a method of learning is usually called the "trial and error" method, or the "trial and success" method, depend- ing upon whether the emphasis is laid upon the movements eliminated or upon those selected.

It is also called "learning by selection of successful variations. First of all must come a group of visual sensations from which the percept is obtained, as the child can recognize and probably even name the object or letter which it is attempting to imitate. Secondly, as the child moves hand and arm in its attempt to imitate the object or letter, it receives sensations from the skin, muscles and joints. In addition to these two series of sensations there will also be a visual series arising from seeing other people execute the movement which the child is attempting.

The first group of sensations acts as a stimulus to imita- tion. This stimulus in the very young child is almost certainly always visual. The second group of sensations is also of prime importance in the development of voluntary movement, and especially in the development of the writing habit. The stream of sensa- tions sent in by the sensory nerve-cells of the skin, joints, and muscles will gradually settle into a definite succession as the movements are repeated.

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The third series of sensations is of the utmost importance in the early stages of learning. We have seen custom essays cheap that the earli- est and most instinctive form of imitation reproduces move- ments rather than forms. We may infer from this that move- ment is easier for the child to imitate than the results of move- ment. The teacher should take advantage of this fact by allowing the child to see and imitate the proper movements in writing as used by herself rather than the results of move- ments as shown in copy. The development of the handwriting movement may, there- fore, be considered as merely a part of the larger problem of the development of voluntary movement in general. The power of voluntary movement is acquired by the child only hy selecting from a vast number of spontaneous and random movements those few which resulted in pleasure and repeating them. A child acquires such power in its essentials by the end of the fifth or sixth month of its life. By exercising this power it continues to develop mechanisms by which it can attain its ends. At first the movements are simple, then increasing development brings increasing complexity of movement and a finer co-ordination of the nerves and muscles involved. The growth of the power of making accurate voluntary movements continues until maturity. Speed should show a steady increase from early childhood until maturity, and, as a matter of fact, it does show such an increase. One of the major aims of child-study is the determination of the order in which instincts develop and abilities appear, in order that the training of the child may be adapted at dif- ferent times to the instincts then predominant, and may be well within the power of abilities then active. One of the first questions requiring consideration in connection with handwriting is the determination of the approximate age at which children should begin to learn to write. One of the most important factors will be the physiological fitness of the child to execute the writing movements. The truth seems to be that indi- vidual variations are so great that it is impossible to deter- mine the exact age at which the teaching or writing should be begun, and that general and rather vague conclusions are the best that can be reached in the light of our present knowledge. Since the fingers and wrist must play a large part in the movements used in writing, it may be argued that writing should not be begun until after they acquire at least a large part of their motor ability, that is, until after nine or ten years of age.

Writing involves not only the motor ability of the hand and arm, but also steadiness of the whole body. Precision of movement by the fingers and arm is dependent upon the steadiness of the central organism as well as upon the arm and fingers themselves. The test required the child to stand as still as possible with feet close together, hands iBryan, William L. The swayings of the child were automatically- registered by an ataxagraph attached to a cap worn on the head. Besides this central unsteadiness, there is also a peripheral unsteadiness which is plainly shown in the twitchings and jerkings of the small muscles, e. This peripheral unsteadiness is due to the diffusion of nervous impulses which are spread out over the whole system instead of being confined to definite channels. This unsteadi- ness becomes less with increasing age and power of voluntary control.

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