It sets an agenda for questioning and observation that is also common property.... This history is no different in that we are presenting a story that is still in the making. Secondly, I want to argue that what we are seeing in these snapshots is not a cumulative progression heading toward an answer, but is in fact a cycle of theory and interpretation mba essay writing services which guides observations, which in turn lead to renewed, more informed, more focused observation which can both test, build on, or go beyond our previous understanding. In both these settings, prior research and theory plays an essential role. It opens our assumptions and actions up to fresh examination.
And it helps us explain our own coursework samples successes in more principled ways. Collaborative Classroom Inquiry The cycle of interpretation I am calling observa- tion-based theory building plays an important, in some ways defining, role in our project in a number of ways.
First, unlike some other, equally valuable ways teacher research can be structured, tWs coursework samples is a collaborative in- quiry. And, ironically, it nurtures diversity by allowing teachers from different disciplines, with di- verse student populations and sharply divergent teaching goals to not only speak with one another, but to contribute to a growing shared understanding. Having shared knowledge, assumptions, and ex- pectations does not, however, mean we begin with a belief that these initial assumptions are correct or rel- evant to our different settings, or that our expectations (and even hopes) will pan out, or that our hypotheses are the accurate ones. This shared knowledge func- tions as a springboard for inquiry.
It sets an agenda for questioning and observation that is also common prop- erty, in the sense that what you discover is probably relevant to me too. For instance, what makes a good supporter and what do students (9th grade or college) need to learn to help other writers? At the same time, because we are interested in what Collins has called "situated cognition" eachmemberof this group frames his or her own inquiry in terms of a particular class and set of goals.
Five Snapshots from Research According to Coleridge, Kubla Khan was written in a "profound sleep" in which all the images rose up before him as things, with a parallel production of correspondent expression. However, most texts do not spring fully realized from a spark of inspiration but emerge over time from acts of planning and revision— from the thinking writ- ers do at the keyboard, in the shower, or on the way to work or school The following snapshots from research describe certain strategies writers use that seem to make a critical difference in their writing and some of the insights which helped shape the features of col- laborative planning.
Notice how the notes are complete sentences, which appear in the final text with little change in wording or order. These young writers do not distin- guish between planning (e. Using a knowledge telling strategy to compose, they also found it hard to believe that anyone would think of an idea and then not use it. They are starting to transform their planning notes in various ways by rearranging, expanding and condensing. Bereiter and Scardamalia (1987) described thesechanges as a growth in conceptual planning—in the ability to differentiate plans from text, to use abstract ideas, and to consider alternatives for thinking about writing.
This research revealed a key feature of growth in business school essay writing service writing. In order to have some control over your own ideas you had to stand back from them, turn them into gists or transform them in light of your intentions.
With this and other studies Bereiter and Scardamalia were showing how the young writers they observed were depending almost exclusively on what they called a "knowledge- telling" process. How could instruction, we asked, supix)rt this process or help writers do it better? This work suggests that writersdepend on three major planning strategies — each with advantages and limitations: Kmwledge-driven planning, Schema-driven planning, and Constructive-planning. Each of these op- erates as an executive level planning strategy, which means that it guides and orchestrates how the writer goes about developing not only things to say but goals and criteria for how to say it.
In Knowledge-driven planning the writer relies on his or her knowledge about the topic knowledge to generate information, to organize ideas, and to choose what to say. Knowledge-driven plan- ning is a familiar and effective strategy for turning out committee reports, school themes and letters home.
It is excellent for demonstrating learning on an essay exam. But it can also lead to writer-based prose that is not adapted to what readers might need. When assign- ments ask writers to transform their knowledge for a new purpose or a reader, a knowledge-driven plan (based on presenting what one knows, structured as one currently thinks about it) will not be up to the job. That is, they help generate ideas, select the relevant ones, set goals and criteria, and offer not only patterns of organization but appropriate language and phrasing. In Constructive-planning, writers build an original plan which puts knowledge and conventions to use. With this executive strategy, writers must "read" the situation and create their own complex web of inten- tions. They must often consider alternatives and deal with conflicts as they develop a network of subgoals, plans and criteria. The plan and the text develop in a kind of dialectic where each can shape the other.
Collaborative planning began, first of all as a response to this prob- lem. This research had defined a set of powerful ex- ecutive strategies that older writers appeared to move about among at will. Could we help developing writers expand their repertoire?
But just how do experienced writers construct a plan? The transcript below of a writer thinking aloud shows someexpert strategies we saw in both adultsand good student writers. These writers elaborate a netiuork of both major goals and "how-to-do it" subgoals and plans.
They also review those goals during writing, not only to monitor progiess but to review and consolidate (and revise) their plan. They spend their time thinking about not only content, but about purpose, organization and audience. Novices sometimes gave almost no thought to the reader or their purpose. And, on this task, the amount of planning time even predicted the quality of the paper. Extensive planners did a significantly better job on this assignment than minimal planners. By visualizing ideas filling up blackboards and making links across them, we hopped to make these familiar abstractions more concrete, to help students see their coursework samples own plan as a conceptual entity distinct from text. It reflects the kinds of rhetorical concerns composition teachers regularly teach.
Although it might give writers a more inte- grated, memorable prompt, my own teaching experi- ence had convinced me that presenting new strategies can open doors for some students, who wonder why "no one ever taught me this before" but it can have little effect on other writers who do not see how or why to incorporate a strategy into what they already do.