College research paper help
If it is true, as Berlin (1987) has argued, that writing instruction is an essential part of any university curriculum, then more study needs to be undertaken to try to bridge the writing gap between high school students and first-year students.
High School Writing Environment and Writing Instruction In 1981, Applebee studied writing instruction and how it was taught in two mid- college research paper help western high schools over a period of one year.
The focus was on ninth and eleventh grade students. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews with teachers and with selected students. In addition, Applebee conducted a national questionnaire survey of teachers in six major subject areas: English, foreign language, mathematics, science, social science, and business education.
The survey responses were limited since Applebee had to rely on selfreported data by the teachers as to what they were doing in their classrooms in buy custom term paper terms of UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 33 college research paper help teaching writing. The observational studies concentrated on the nature and frequency of situations in which students were being asked to write in college research paper help all subject areas. Similarly homework assignments involved writing of at least paragraph length 3 percent of the time. Instruction of any kind was rare, and pre-writing activities consisted of teachers talking about form (length and layout of the paper). In 1984, Applebee began what he termed the second phase of his study of writing in secondary schools. In addition, data were gathered through a study of the textbooks used in a variety of secondary school subject areas and a study of the writing development of fifteen students over a sixteen month period.
In his examination of writing in high school, Applebee (1984) characterized high school writing assignments as being typically first-and-final draft, completed in class and requiring a page or less of writing.
Due to these limited uses of writing, Applebee concluded that writing was more likely to be assessed than taught, and that teachers were more concerned with product rather than process. However, Applebee observed that students still incorporated narrative text in their analytic writing tasks, and that their lack of organizational structure leads them to provide a long list of points without organizing them into groups of related ideas. Applebee (1993) updated his initial writing research from 1981 and 1984 in 1993 when he asked teachers in a national survey how many pages of writing of any sort students had done for class during the previous week. In the college research paper help sample of public school teachers, Applebee found that teachers self-reported that their students had done, on average, 3. Applebee found that the total amount of writing was greater compared to his earlier studies. He theorized that this was a result of including activities such as answering comprehension questions and writing in journals as part of the writing completed in class that was not part of his original studies. Applebee concluded from this later study that when it comes to teaching writing in the secondary college research paper help schools the most can you write my paper for me frequently-used techniques remain very traditional: written comments, assignment of a grade, and correction of errors in mechanics.
In the course of their discussions about their own high school students and the type of writing students were being required to produce, Alsup and Bernard-Donals (2002) found that high school students were not practicing the writing process as they had been taught to do. Though the students had been instructed in the process model of writing, with an emphasis placed on revision, they did not make any material changes to their papers in the re-write, despite UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 36 having received peer and teacher feedback on their drafts. Alsup and Bernard-Donols observed their students dutifully going through the process of revision but with little effect. The students did not appear to engage with their topics and did not question their research findings. The students performed the writing process steps, but did so without any real sense of engagement with their topics. Davies (2010) hypothesized that one of the problems with teaching students how to write in high school is that there are no dedicated composition classes. Writing essays is simply part of high school English classes where the main focus is on teaching literature. The problem, as Jordan sees it, is that students fail to understand that one writing template cannot be used for all writing situations and that this often leads to students becoming frustrated and confused about how to write an essay. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH what is the best custom essay site SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 37 Mosley (2006) characterized high school writing as formulaic and predicable. She attributed this phenomenon to the fact that each high school teacher has too many students and too little time to mark papers, so teachers allow their students to follow a formula to produce a product. In his research, Hillocks (2006) observed the same type of writing instruction that Davies (2006) and Jordan (2006) found. The students in his study were also being taught how to write by adhering to the writing structure known as the five paragraph essay model. High school writing, according to the Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education (1998), should enable students to explore, shape, and clarify their thoughts, and to communicate them to others. It asserts that, by using effective writing strategies, students will learn to discover and refine ideas and to compose and revise with increasing confidence and skill. The guide stresses the need for students to know and apply processes and strategies in developing skills. This procedural knowledge includes knowledge and skilled use of the six language arts (read, write, listen, speak, view and represent) as well as related processes, including processes of inquiry, interaction, revision and editing, reflection, and metacognition.