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But in the extreme case, highly naturalized transcriptions can read much like written, edited prose, while highly denaturalized transcriptions often adopt abstruse notation systems to capture the nuances of spoken language, resulting in a transcript that bears little resemblance to ordinary natural language. A denaturalized transcription system includes more information, but it does so at the risk of obscuring the content. A naturalized transcription system reads much more easily, but it does so at the cost of losing information that might inform interpretation of the text. As a result, I adopted a highly naturalized form of transcription. The transcription process itself was methodical and painstaking. I listened to each interview several times to ensure transcription accuracy and minimize the number of passages that had to be marked inaudible. Because the two recorders were differently positioned, each picked up some utterances that the other did not, so I used both recordings in the transcription process. In total, transcribing all eight interviews took approximately fifty hours of work. These were a very useful source of data and particularly useful as a complement to the interview data that I collected. These documents were useful because they provided clear, explicit articulation of the architectural reasoning and decision-making process. However, they did not provide detailed historical information.

Thus, these documents were most useful as a complement to the interview data, which provides a better historical perspective. Because of this, many readers may be unfamiliar with it, so I present here an overview of the method and a fairly detailed discussion of relevant methodological considerations in adopting it. Today, content analysis is a major research method in a number of disciplines, and many textbooks and articles give guidance on the method and its application. There is no canonical, accepted definition of qualitative research.

Content analysis was originally introduced as a quantitative method. This interchange defined the contours of a debate that continues to this day. Advocates of qualitative content analysis argue that a qualitative approach is useful and necessary for analyzing the content of texts where meaning is highly subjective and context-dependent and quantitative measurements are ill suited to describing meaning. Meanwhile, critics of qualitative content analysis have expressed skepticism about its reliability and its methodological rigor. Indeed, to a significant degree, mainstream quantitative content analysts continue to be fairly dismissive of qualitative content analysis.

It may be true that early examples of qualitative content analysis lacked some of the methodological rigors of the quantitative method. However, great strides have been made in developing qualitative content analysis into a rigorous research methodology with a disciplined process and with careful consideration of validity and reliability. Adoption of qualitative content analysis in the English- speaking research community has increased in recent years and is likely to continue increasing. A different way of putting this is that qualitative content analysis specifically seeks to examine the latent meaning of texts rather than only the manifest content. If a study seeks to find out information about the number of women and men who appear in magazine advertisements, then quantitative content analysis would be more suitable than qualitative content analysis, because very little interpretation is required to determine whether the persons in a picture are female or male. Qualitative content analysis provides a method for managing this ambiguity in a valid and reliable way. In the present study, we are explicitly concerned with interpretation of the language that architects use in their discourse on evolution.

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The use of qualitative content analysis allows us to deal in an explicit and rigorous way with such polysemy and helps us to avoid imposing our own biases onto college essay writers block the interpretation of the data. In addition, one of the particular goals of this study is to translate, in a replicable way, the language that real-world architects use when talking about evolution into the modeling constructs of our approach to architecture evolution. This is merely a special kind of interpretation, and qualitative content analysis can help us with it by providing a systematic method for resolving ambiguities to extract meaning from text. But in qualitative content analysis, it is equally acceptable to conduct a textual (nonfrequency) analysis, using the codes and categories as a way to achieve reliability and avoid bias, rather than as figures to be tallied. In addition, a quantitative analysis approach is most appropriate when there are many subjects to be compared—when the goal is to compare or relate results collected from many individuals (individual people, individual companies, individual texts, etc. Our content analysis, on the other hand, is conducted within the context of a case study—indeed, a single-case study. Rather, their role is as informants who can supply data about the true subject of the study, Costco. In quantitative content analysis, the procedure is fairly fixed. There are many variants of the method, but each variant has a prescribed set 70 5. Qualitative content analysis has historically been much looser. Here, we are using a particularly well-defined form of qualitative content analysis that does have a process with a fixed set of steps. But even so, much more variation is permitted in the execution of those steps than in classical quantitative analysis. Such flexibility is very useful in the present case study, as we will see later in this chapter. Many qualitative content analyses have very quantitative aspects, and many classically quantitative content analyses deal with latent meaning, involve rich textual interpretation, and adopt methodological variations. However, the above discussion makes clear that qualitative content analysis is much more suitable for our research questions than quantitative content analysis. The research college essay writers block questions for this case study are given at the beginning of this chapter. In qualitative content analysis, coding is used as a way of reducing the data and focusing the analysis on the research college essay writers block questions. Coding is done in accordance with a coding frame, which defines the codes that may be applied to segments of data.

The construction of the coding frame circumscribes the analysis.

Rather, the text who will write my essay is first divided into coding units, such that each unit may be coded with at most one subcategory of a main category in the coding frame. Second, it 71 5 Case study: Architecture evolution at Costco helps to keep the analysis directed toward answering the research questions. Third, it facilitates double-coding as buy research paper cheap a means of demonstrating reliability.

Before the main coding phase begins, a pilot phase is recommended in which the lord of the flies essay help researcher applies the coding frame to a portion of the material. This can reveal problems that would otherwise crop up during the main analysis. Evaluate the trial coding and finalize the coding frame. After the pilot phase, the coding frame is evaluated and modified as necessary in preparation for the main analysis.

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