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But in the extreme case, highly naturalized transcriptions can read much like written, edited prose, while highly denaturalized transcriptions often adopt abstruse notation systems to capture the nuances of spoken language, resulting in a transcript that bears little resemblance to ordinary natural language. A denaturalized transcription system includes more information, but it does so at the risk of obscuring the content. A naturalized transcription system reads much more easily, but it does so at the cost of losing information that might inform interpretation of the text. As a result, I adopted a highly naturalized form of transcription. The transcription process itself was methodical and painstaking. I listened to each interview several times to ensure transcription accuracy and minimize the number of passages that had to be marked inaudible. Because the two recorders were differently positioned, each picked up some utterances that the other did not, so I used both recordings in the transcription process. In total, transcribing all eight interviews took approximately fifty hours of work. These were a very useful source of data and particularly useful as a complement to the interview data that I collected. These documents were useful because they provided clear, explicit articulation of the architectural reasoning and decision-making process. However, they did not provide detailed historical information.
Thus, these documents were most useful as a complement to the interview data, which provides a better historical perspective. Because of this, many readers may be unfamiliar with it, so I present here an overview of the method and a fairly detailed discussion of relevant methodological considerations in adopting it. Today, content analysis is a major research method in a number of disciplines, and many textbooks and articles give guidance on the method and its application. There is no canonical, accepted definition of qualitative research.
Content analysis was originally introduced as a quantitative method. This interchange defined the contours of a debate that continues to this day. Advocates of qualitative content analysis argue that a qualitative approach is useful and necessary for analyzing the content of texts where meaning is highly subjective and context-dependent and quantitative measurements are ill suited to describing meaning. Meanwhile, critics of qualitative content analysis have expressed skepticism about its reliability and its methodological rigor. Indeed, to a significant degree, mainstream quantitative content analysts continue to be fairly dismissive of qualitative content analysis.
It may be true that early examples of qualitative content analysis lacked some of the methodological rigors of the quantitative method. However, great strides have been made in developing qualitative content analysis into a rigorous research methodology with a disciplined process and with careful consideration of validity and reliability. Adoption of qualitative content analysis in the English- speaking research community has increased in recent years and is likely to continue increasing. A different way of putting this is that qualitative content analysis specifically seeks to examine the latent meaning of texts rather than only the manifest content. If a study seeks to find out information about the number of women and men who appear in magazine advertisements, then quantitative content analysis would be more suitable than qualitative content analysis, because very little interpretation is required to determine whether the persons in a picture are female or male. Qualitative content analysis provides a method for managing this ambiguity in a valid and reliable way. In the present study, we are explicitly concerned with interpretation of the language that architects use in their discourse on evolution.
The construction of the coding frame circumscribes the analysis.
Rather, the text who will write my essay is first divided into coding units, such that each unit may be coded with at most one subcategory of a main category in the coding frame. Second, it 71 5 Case study: Architecture evolution at Costco helps to keep the analysis directed toward answering the research questions. Third, it facilitates double-coding as buy research paper cheap a means of demonstrating reliability.
Before the main coding phase begins, a pilot phase is recommended in which the lord of the flies essay help researcher applies the coding frame to a portion of the material. This can reveal problems that would otherwise crop up during the main analysis. Evaluate the trial coding and finalize the coding frame. After the pilot phase, the coding frame is evaluated and modified as necessary in preparation for the main analysis.