College application essay service
In spite of this very different procedure, a similar distinction was reported but with different terminology.
Svensson described the main variation in cognitive approach to be between holistic and atomistic. The indications of an college application essay service atomistic approach were: focusing on specific comparisons in the text, focusing on the sequence of the text, but not the main parts, memorizing details and, in contrast, clear evidence of a lack of an orientation towards the message as a whole (see Svensson, 1976, p. The defining features of the two distinctions were very similar, but there was an important difference in emphasis which led to the differing terminology.
The first difference was 44 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING in terms of epistemological assumptions. Svensson, as he explains in the next chapter, was concerned to retain evidence of both outcome and process within his initial analysis. Marton concentrated first on process, before examining relationships with outcome. In order to understand a text, we have to integrate, to reorganize, to see the passage as a whole.
It was therefore no surprise to find a close empirical relationship between the two sets of categories. In terms of outcome 29 out of 30 cases were categorized in the same way, while there was complete agreement for 25 out of the 30 categorizations of cognitive approach or levels of processing (see Marton, 1976b, p. Subsequently, the distinction between the surface and deep levels of processing was included in an SSRC research programme at Lancaster directed by Noel Entwistle (Entwistle and Ramsden, 1983, and chapter 9). He was concerned that the crucial intentional component was not a part of its connotation, for instance. This change also fitted the altered theoretical framework of the work of the Gothenburg group.
At about the same time, Laurillard (1978) and Ramsden (1981) started to investigate approaches to learning in normal study situations in various subjects. The instances occasionally came closer to the difference between an atomistic and a holistic approach than to the original distinction from which they arose. Only when they are identified separately can the relationship between them be demonstrated. Indeed Roger Saljo, in Chapter 5, has done just this in showing how a certain meaning-orientation leads to a certain way of organizing (segmenting, delimiting) the text and parts of it and how that way of organizing the text leads to a certain referential meaning being abstracted from it. APPROACHES TO LEARNING 45 Approaches to Learning in Normal Studies 2 The main investigation discussed in this chapter had been aimed at illuminating important functional differences in how students carry out their studies. This was done by setting up an experimental situation intended college application essay service to resemble everyday conditions in important respects.
Conse- quently it is a most reasonable question to ask, whether the differences found in learning experiments represent central differences in studying at university. This question has been answered in the affirmative many times. The relationship between surface approach in this case (certainly less intense, immediate, spasmodic) and examination seems to resemble that between surface approach adopted in the experiment and the retention test there: college application essay service E: How did you read these books? Well, basic knowledge, sort of, to get in as much as possible. But after perhaps a day or an hour or so as a result of experiences, or events which jog your mind, it sort of works its way into a more solid perception in some way, which you stick to.
It was found that there was a close association between a deep approach to studying adopted by freshmen and their success in social sciences courses, in spite of the fact that examination results and qualitative differences in learning can hardly be said to be described in an equivalent way.
The ways in which students vary in the processes and outcomes of learning has emerged clearly not just in the Gothenburg studies, but also those reported in later chapters (particularly Chapters 9 and 10). The differences between approaches to learning in different subject areas and in college application essay service contrasting academic contexts will be considered there, and also in the concluding, integrative chapter. Now that we have found a difference in the way students learn which we believe to be of fundamental importance, and since this difference goes between two approaches to learning, of which one is clearly preferable to the other, should we not try to make the students who tend to adopt the less appealing approach, change to the more highly valued one? Changing Approaches to Learning A significant prerequisite for attempting to influence how people act in learning situations is to have a clear grasp of precisely how different people act. In our case, the problem could be phased as: what is it that a person using a deep approach does differently from a person using a surface approach.
Since one of the problems with a surface approach is the lack of such an active and reflective attitude toward the text, a fairly obvious idea would be to attempt to induce a deep approach through giving people some hints on how to go about learning. Questions in the text In a study aimed at testing this idea (Marton, 1976a), 30 students taking a one-year integrated course in political science, economy and sociology APPROACHES TO LEARNING 47 served as participants.
The learning material used was the first chapter of an introductory text-book in political science that these students were about to read in their college application essay service normal studies. The participants were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The procedure adopted for influencing the approach to learning in the experimental group was to have the students answer questions of a particular kind while reading.
These questions were of the kind that students who use a deep approach had been found to ask themselves spontaneously during their reading. The questions, which were inter- spersed between each of the five sections of the chapter, were of the following kind: What sub-sections do you think there are in this section? Can you summarize the content of each of these sub-sections in one or two sentences? What is the relationship between the various sub-sections?
Can you summarise the content of the whole section in one or two sentences? It should also be added that the design of this study included an immediate, as well as a delayed, retention test. The latter session took place on the average more than two months after the first one.
This attempt to induce a deep approach through forcing people to answer questions found to be characteristic of such an approach, yielded interesting but contra-intuitive results. At one level it was obvious that the approach taken was influenced by the treatment to which the experimental group was exposed.