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These criteria are appropriate for informing writing instruction in grades K-12 and have been examined, discussed, and employed by teachers across the country, most extensively in Chicago pub- lic schools (CPS). Assignments that em- phasize construction of knowledge ask students to move beyond simple reproduction of information they have read, listened to, or viewed. An assignment that asks students to recount what they learned from a book on Mexico, for example, does not call for students to construct knowledge to the same degree as an assignment asking students to compare a Mexican village to their own neighborhood. In turn, student work should demonstrate that the writer has produced reasonably original material and has not merely repeated information she or he has read or heard. These processes do not func- tion separately, nor do we see them as existing in a hierarchical relationship in which analysis, for example, represents a higher cognitive function than evaluation. Comparing two cheapest essays writing services political candidates, for example, may involve analyzing their platforms, interpreting their cheapest essays writing services slogans and speeches, synthesizing information from various sources, and evaluating them as leaders.
Elaborated Written Communication This criterion measures the extent to which students elaborate, which i need help writing my essay by our definition requires that the writing both state an original point and support it with evidence. There must be a coherent, logical connection between the generaliza- tion and its support.
We stress that elaborated writing must cheapest essays writing services include both generali- zations and support.
In schoolwork, students are commonly asked to do one or the other: they are asked to watch a movie, look at a picture, or read a text and then make a conclusion about it, or they are given a generalization and asked to supply supporting reasons, facts, or details. In the common parlance of the class- room, elaboration often means adding details (a definition sup- ported by many state writing assessment rubrics), and much of the writing students produce in school is in the form of fill-in- the-blank exercises or short answers to open-response questions. Yet even when students are given longer assignments, such as complete essays, all too often they are given the outline — a prompt 287 TEACHER RESPONSE AND ASSESSMENT that suggests a conclusion, for instance, or a set of details to ex- amine for commonalities — and asked to complete the picture.
We suggest that cognitive work is enhanced when students are called on to supply both halves of the equation: to make an argu- ment, draw a conclusion, or suggest a generalization and to sub- stantiate this through extended writing. Students may be asked, for example, to make an evaluation about a character and pro- vide appropriate evidence from the story to support that evalua- tion. Or, in narrative writing, in addition to telling what happened, students may be asked to draw a conclusion about an event and to ensure that cheapest essays writing services the narration supports the conclusion. The spirit of this criterion is to facilitate an interaction between what students accomplish in the class- room and their lives at home,-iit work, on the playground, or on the sports field. A more authentic assignment would ask students to devise their own letters to real people concerning problems that are actually of concern to them.
We discovered, for example, that teachers often mean different things when we use terms such as authentic or elaborate. For many teachers in the group, these con- versations provided a unique and significant opportunity to evalu- ate student writing and, in particular, writing assignments with a peer group using a universal language and common criteria. Sev- eral teachers in the group took the criteria back to their schools to initiate similar conversations among faculty members. Others reported starting similar but age-appropriate conversations with students and using the criteria in student conferences as students were developing writing pieces. These conversations prompted teachers to examine their own pedagogy and to experiment with ways they could elicit highly authentic, intellectually provocative work from their students.
With input from cheapest essays writing services these teachers, writing thesis service we translated the criteria into a rubric that illustrates a coherent vision of authentic intellectual quality in writing and writing instruction. TEACHER RESPONSE AND ASSESSMENT Theoretical Rationale The theory of AIA in writing incorporates current thinking on constructivism, authenticity, and the writing process. Over the last thirty years, the writing process movement has highlighted constructivist principles in writing instruction (see Grabe and Kaplan 1996). Our scheme also draws on recent examinations of the rela- tionship between authenticity and constructivism. The term au- thentic has been used synonymously with performance to suggest instructional activities that physically resemble real-world activi- ties, which carries the danger of allowing student participation in activities to become an end in itself, without regard to the intellectual quality of those activities.
In our view, this approach can give too much credence to the structure of an assignment at the expense of its substance. Students may, for example, be asked to write a busi- ness letter. Writ- ing a letter to a city council asking for repair of the pothole on the bike path leading to school, on the other hand, could be au- thentic. To truly serve authentic purpose, we believe students should go through the processes of discerning how a citizen can effect change, to whom such a letter should go, and the most J Criteria for Measuring Authentic Intellectual Achievement in Writing likely means of achieving a successful response to a real problem. We invite teachers to consider how journal writing, too, can be used as authentically as possible. In this spirit, AIA envisions meaningful work in school as preparation for the future intellectual demands of productive employment, responsible citizenship, and successful management of personal affairs in society.