Cheapest essay writing services

At least since Aristotle, men have commented on the differing demands made on the learner by different bodies of knowledge, and a complicated set of culturally defined norms and rituals has come to be associated with the process of learning and teaching in different disciplines. But the context of learning is not defined solely by the type of subject being taught and researched in an academic department.

Teaching cheapest essay writing services and assessment procedures vary between different academic units, although the effects of these differences on student learning are poorly understood. The realization that university teaching contexts might have unintended consequences for learning — that they might discourage students from coming to grips with the fundamentals of their subject and encourage them to use tricks and stratagems to pass examinations — is certainly not a recent one. At least by the mid-nineteenth century the relationship between teaching and assessment methods and the quality of student learning was recognized. Quite another way must be taken in the preparation v of the candidate.

For two years the pupil is thus forced along a professional essay writing help false P road of study in which neither science nor philosophy encounter him. Memory is really almost the only faculty called into play. Thorsten Veblen (1918) wrote a bitter and sardonic critique of the American academic establishment in The Higher Learning in America , arguing that impersonal staff-student rela- tionships and rigid assessment systems had destroyed scholarship and understanding in the process of increasing the apparent efficiency of universities. More recent research work, such as the studies by Snyder, Becker, and Miller and Parlett described in the first chapter, unfortunately seems to confirm the potentially debilitating effect of the academic environment on student learning. Instead of developing independence in judgement, problem-solving and analytic (S skills, they are obliged to devote their attentions to the narrow requirements of assessment, including the memorization of ideas and r: facts. There is evidence to suggest that there is another side to the academic context. Good teaching and student control over pace and subject matter may facilitate under- standing. Chapter 3 reported the work of Fransson (1977), for example, who showed how a lack of interest in the material studied, or a failure to perceive relevance in it, was associated with a surface approach, while interest was related to a deep approach. Attempts to understand the material being studied may also be frustrated by inadequate background knowledge of the relevant field. This is 148 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING especially the case where, the learning task demands that the student has grasped a fundamental concept. To the extent that this kind of task is more commonly set in scientific subjects, background knowledge is more frequently related to the approach a student takes to a task in science than in arts and social science disciplines. Conversely, students tend to mention the effects of interest (or lack of interest) more often in arts subjects than in science cheapest essay writing services ones (Ramsden, 1979). Here a physics student describes how his previous knowledge of a type of problem helps him to take a deep approach, while his weakness in essay paper writing services a basic mathematical concept makes his approach to another part of the same question anxious, passive and superficial.

It was like one of the questions from a previous course, which I could relate. I knew basically what sort of answer I should get, and from that I could work my way through it.

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I looked at it and I thought "That looks complicated"... It is not surprising to find that interest and background knowledge are related to each other in the natural setting of student learning. I think if I already know something about the subject about which I want to write, it helps. Because then I can write something out without having to refer to the books first, sketch something out in much more detail rather than just skeletal. This question was about popular recreations, and were attitudes to them changing. Well, having been grounded in Folklore — a consuming passion for the last eight years — I knew quite a lot about that already. So I just kind of wrote out three or four hundred words which gave a basis for it.

The first thing to say about these arguments is that they are at variance with the results of the recent research. It is clear THE CONTEXT OF LEARNING 149 that students take different approaches to different tasks: more precisely, the same student takes different approaches in different circumstances. In other words, lack of interest or motivation can be seen as arising from a context, rather than being fixed attributes which a student brings to a situation — although past experiences (at school, for example) clearly affect current perceptions. The study from which these findings were mainly derived was carried out at Lancaster University from 1978 to 1981. The research involved both an intensive interview study and a large scale questionnaire survey.

A group of 57 students in six university departments (physics, engineering, independent studies, psychology, English literature and history) formed the sample. The students were interviewed about their methods of tackling recent academic tasks set as part of their normal studies. The range of tasks included problem-solving, reading, essay-writing and report- writing. This focus on specific tasks avoided too ready generalizations and provided more detailed informa- tion about the strategies used. We have seen throughout this cheapest essay writing services book, in experiments and in everyday studying, that perceived assessment requirements are strong influences on the approach to learning a student adopts when tackling an academic task.

It was also shown how perceived anxiety adversely affected the approach to learning (Chapter 3). Where students felt that the assessment situation was threatening (whether the threat was objectively present in the experimental design or not), they were more likely to adopt a mechanical, rote learning approach to the learning tasks. Students often explained surface approaches or negative attitudes in terms of their experiences of excessive workloads or inappropriate forms of assessment. I put this down to this very keen desire to cover that much work. The factual overburdening of syllabuses may explain why students display such a poor level of understanding in assessments which demand something more than the reproduction of well-rehearsed answers. What still remains unclear, however, is how to encourage deep approaches by attention to assessment methods. The attempts reported in Chapter 3 showed how difficult it is to induce deep approaches, at least by simple techniques of asking different types of questions. Of course not every student responds to assessment pressures in the same way. But the range of responses itself demonstrates the powerful effects of the perceived coursework research assessment context. The quotation from the interview of a psychology student at the beginning of this chapter, for example, comes from a student who obtained a first class honours degree.

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