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The focus of their attention is on isolated details of the subject matter, and operations are carried out on the basis of selection from a standard repertory of techniques rather than by recourse to theory. Similarly, we can find evidence of comprehension learning at the lower cheapest custom research papers level, where descriptions of concepts are local, and there is no attempt to integrate concepts or establish relations between them. This is a two-phase region, which is a mixture of the nr and carbon compound. These students are focusing on the meaning or interpretation of the diagrammatic representation, but they are not descriptions of a theoretical framework, rather they are descriptions of its detail in isolation. Quotes of this sort indicate the presence of comprehension learning, but only at the lower, localized level. Evidence of learning at the more theoretical level can be found but in this study it was rare. One such example is still a description of structural changes, but here the meaning of the diagram is related to the theoretical concept of the crystal pattern.
It is thus not simply a description of the existence of the phases as areas on the diagram, it places that interpretation in its theoretical context.
The students were asked to work out the sequence of phases for particular alloys using the diagram.
This involves them also in interpreting shapes and sections of the graph. LEARNING FROM PROBLEM SOLVING 141 In some types of material, a lot of them when they freeze, metals that is, you get two distinct crystal patterns. In a particular metal, you could end up with one phase with dendrites in it.
This student is offering an explanation of the theory to support his identification of the two phases of the diagram, and this is a form of high level comprehension learning, i. All students were found to use both styles of learning, but in varying proportions and, more strikingly, in varying proportions depending on the task.
For example, on the stereographic projection task, all the students showed a high incidence of operation learning, whereas on the Equilibrium Diagram task, only half the students did so, with half biased more towards comprehension learning. This unequal distribution of styles among different problem-solving tasks is strongly indicative of a task effect on choice of learning style, and this will be discussed further in the next section. This research had thus demonstrated that the theoretical constructs of operation learning and comprehension learning also help to describe problem-solving tasks in everyday studying. We can begin to make sense of the relations between these constructs if we consider again their definitions. Operation learning concerns the manipulation of the concepts and objects in the subject matter domain. Comprehension learning concerns their meaning, or description. The global level involves integration of the descriptions into a theoretical framework: the local level does not.
If we consider approach, with its intentional component, as a preliminary to style, it is then possible to suggest that the choice of approach affords the opportunity for one or other level of style to be implemented. For any particular problem, a student who is thinking deeply and holistically will be looking for meaning and will be able to attend to the global level of descriptions, whereas the student who is thinking atomistically will consider only the local components of the problem without seeking to integrate them meaningfully. The effects of a surface approach, insofar as it involves the intention to reproduce, will be to produce low-level descriptions or unintegrated sets of operations. V J 142 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING A deep approach may go through the initial stages of low-level operation learning, but only as a preliminary to the high-level integration of descriptions and operations into a full understanding of the subject-matter domain.
The design process must take into account the various descriptions of learning we have discussed, and ensure that the problem requires the student to engage in the appropriate kind of thinking.
It must also be considered in relation to assessment procedures and the whole educational context, as we shall see cheapest custom research papers in the next chapter. After that, the responsibility for learning lies with the student. Students take a largely rational approach to learning. They consider what is required of them, they decide on priorities, and they act cheapest custom research papers accordingly. The teacher plays an important part in forming their perceptions of what is required and what is important, and it is this, as much as their style of presenting the subject-matter, which influences what and how their students learn. Howe of the University of Edinburgh for pointing out that definitions of this sort should be classified as comprehension learning because they are essentially descriptions. I had originally classified them as operation learning on the grounds that they are a form of rule, but I now think this makes less sense. Students do not, for example, simply read an article. They read it for a purpose connected with a course of study and in response to the requirements of those who teach the course. The focus is thus not on the framework of courses and assessment itself, but rather on what the students construct out of this framework. How do students experience the effects of the context of learning at university? Another example he quoted was about why i cant write my essay when you bang a drum you get lots of different sounds rather than when you say, play a violin you just get the one note... Effects of the Learning Context in Historical Perspective There is nothing new about the idea that learning in educational institutions is related to the environment in which it takes place. One of the dominant features of undergraduate education in universities is that it is usually confined within one subject area and often, especially in Britain, to one discipline.