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All of the participants were students who studied English at a range of Iranian state and azad universities in Shiraz, Bandar Abbas, can someone write my paper Bushehr, Tehran, Zanjan, Yazd, Kish Island, Shahr e Ghods, Shahriar, Karaj, and Takestan.
Procedure The five samples collected from each EFL learner were meticulously inspected and compared for recurrent errors.
The next step was to explain why each error did happen. The discussion continued until we both agreed on the causes of the errors. The final step was to evaluate the errors and to suggest classroom procedures which could help teachers and students to correct them. Results The number of errors that were found in the five-paragraph essays amounted to a total of 55330 errors which indicates an average of 6. As such, a total of 90259 errors were found in the whole corpus which shows an average of 5. Needless to say, errors found in the single-paragraph sub-corpus had been made by lower-intermediate writers, and the ones found in the five-paragraph essays had been made by the upper-intermediate writers. The analysis of the errors revealed that they could be classified into three major classes: textual, discursive, and cognitive. Textual errors include those that have to do with the micro-structure of the text (i. Nevertheless, most of the errors found in expository texts belonged in the first and second categories, but the majority of cognitive errors were found in argumentative texts. This does not mean that expository texts in the corpus were completely void of cognitive errors, but that such errors were much more frequent in argumentative texts. Table 3 displays the frequencies and percentages of error types in the corpus.
Finally, the difference between essays and paragraphs as it pertains to cognitive errors lies in the fact that the majority of paragraphs were expository, but a noticeable portion of the collected essays were argumentative in nature. Discussion The main kinds of textual errors that were found in the corpus included spelling or typographical errors, errors of capitalization, wrong use of the mechanics of writing (i.
As far as syntax is concerned, errors of concord (i. The situation is bizarre, can someone write my paper everyone knows this, but no one does anything.
The very few odd ones who had the foresight to see what the country was gradually going through — long before it actually happened — have been laid off. As a consequence, TEFL in present day Iran is a field that has been on auto-pilot for the past four decades or so, just like a stone that wanders in empty space.
Cohesion in a paragraph or an essay requires mastery of grammar and a correct computation of logical relations between events. The meta-textual errors that the participants in this study made testify to the fact that they lacked such a mastery which, in turn, failed them to used appropriate cohesion in their written performance.
The corpus was fraught with errors such as wrong topicalization, faulty dangling constructions, wrong use of link-words, wrong word order, parcellation, mixing of direct and indirect speech, and other types of logical errors. This error clearly shows a transfer of thought patterns from Persian to English. In other words, Tahereh had thought in Persian and had then translated her thought into English. In Persian, the speaker is the point of reference, and Persian sentences — except for scientific texts — often use this point of reference to show proximity or distance. Standing inside the valley and looking upward, Tahereh uses her own self as the point of departure and assumes that the valley has height, not depth. Quite often, poor study professional essay writers review skills also result in cognitive errors.
Teachers should encourage their students to cross check Persian-to-English equivalents in an English-to-English dictionary to make sure they are not using a word in the wrong co-text. Logical fallacies comprise another set of cognitive errors. Tautology, hasty conclusions, circular definitions, post hoc ergo propter hoc, red herring, straw man fallacy, using vice and virtue words, and many other kinds of logical fallacies were observed in the corpus. As such, writing is interactive, and like any other kind of interaction, it is bound by pragmatic principles and maxims. Students need to learn pragmatics to be able to write suitable texts for their target audience.
This goal is not often met in Advanced Writing and Essay Writing courses in can someone write my paper Iran — which are often taught in a mechanical way. The result of such an oversight is quite often texts that are pompous, bombastic, verbose, monotonous, and so forth. Preferring the NS to NNs models, as James Dean Brown puts it, implies that:. It seems, to me at least, that Iranian EFL learners will be much safer if they are taught either British English or American English. Conclusion All in all, the analysis of the corpus for this study shows that the quality of EFL programs in Iran has unfortunately been deteriorating regularly since 1992 when I started teaching advanced writing and essay writing courses for the 74 M. A huge percentage of EFL teachers are grotesquely invalid — which is unfortunately a bizarre situation. The very small percentage of teachers who are proficient and valid either have no power to change anything or have become numb after their many attempts at putting things right have all failed. Unless policy makers in the UK, the US, and other Inner-circle English-speaking countries wake up from their complacency and open their eyes to what is going on right under their noses, the English language that we once knew and cherished will soon become history.
The Author Mohammad Ah Salmani Nodoushan (Email: dr. Fie has over 25 years of teaching experience and has taught major EFL courses at BA, MA, and PhD levels. His main areas of interest are politeness and pragmatics, and he has also conducted a number of studies on language education and assessment.
Besides his being the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Language Studies, he is a reviewer for a number of journals including Journal of Pragmatics, Pragmatics and Society, and Australian Journal of Linguistics. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 160-170. New York: can someone write my paper Trends in Linguistics Studies and Monographs. Research Paper Writing Strategies of Professional Japanese EFL Writers Kazuko Matsumoto Four Japanese university professors were interviewed on their processes and strategies for writing a research paper in English as a Foreign language (EFL). The results show that these professional EFL writers use strategies similar to those used by skilled native English can someone write my paper and proficient ESL writers as reported in previous studies, have an explicit view of writing as a nonlinear dynamic process and as a way of discovering meaning and ideas, supplement writing at the computer with writing with pen and paper, and basically do not rely on LI fapa?