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Such ideas, however, are not only delusive in opposed to immuta- themselves, but are radically opposed to the grand wnty of physical thesis defense advice truth of the uniformity of nature, the unity of order, arrangement and design, and by consequence so far would tend to impugn the evidence of higher truths.
Yet we hear the notion of " efficient causation" in K 130 THEOKY OF CAUSATION. A recurrence to (what is buy essay writing online at least) the simple Difficulties removed.
The connection and subordination of inductive laws and generalisations is what we carefully distin- guish as physical causation. Though, as has been well observed by his biographer, Mr. Burton, such objections are of a vulgar class, and not such as a philosopher would entertain, yet it may be worth noticing how completely the possibility of falling into such absurd misconceptions is avoided by the view taken above. It should be observed that the opinion quoted of Lord Kames, besides the objection noticed in the text, involves also an instance of the entire confusion of the idea of physical and moral causation here dwelt upon. THE theory of causation has been much mixed up Final causes. Throughout the immensely greater part of nature we can trace symmetry and arrangement, but not the end for which the adjustment is made. But this is higher english critical essay help in no way a less powerful proof of design and intel- ligence than the former. The most exact and re- condite adaptation of means to buy essay writing online accomplish an obvious end is no more peculiarly an evidence of design, than the universal arrangement according to determinate laws which pervades the depths of cosmical space, where we are least able to trace any buy essay writing online end. Sym- metry and beauty are results of mind of at least as symmetry a proof of high an order as mechanical efficiency. A mere design, numerical relation invariably preserved, but no further connected with any imaginable purpose, or a systematic arrangement of useless parts or abortive organs on a regular plan, are just as forcible indica- tions of intelligence, as any results of immediate practical utility. But this is a differ ence merely in degree, and as applicable to different classes of minds. In a philosophic analysis of our convictions there can be no real difference in kind between the two classes of conclusions. In a strictly philosophical point of view the in- ference that everything "has a use" may certainly be regarded as a generalisation which carries with it a high degree of probability. It may suffice to convince us of this, if we merely ask for essaywriting service what purpose is life itself conferred?
It is hence manifest that to take a satisfactory view of the case, we must not rely on the mere consideration of an end answered, but must recur to a higher prin- ciple that of symmetry, order, unity of plan, and composition of organised frames : and this too, as only one branch of the yet wider scheme of universal order. It is, however, fairly to be admitted, that many But in cer- tain cases instances occur where we should least expect it of an end an- swered utility in natural arrangements. In the same point of view (Ersted has beautifully observed, " There is no inactive void in the remote distances between the planets. The space is filled by ether, and is penetrated by the attractive forces by which the whole universe is held together.
So that (( final causes " properly understood, so far from receding (as some pretend) before the advance of modern science in the wider and more philosophic sense, eminently derive increasing evidence from its ESSAY I. Nor is it just to accuse those of the modern school who are engaged, as their special and legitimate object, in investigating the former, of undervaluing the latter.
The celebrated case of the cells of bees deserves The ceils of the honey- more particular consideration, inasmuch as it offers an comb. The argument points to a highly intellectual operation either performed by the bee, or implied in the arrangement of its organs, so as mechanically to effect it. Argument Paley expressly held that the mechanism of the from astro- J J uomy. They, however, are not necessary : each might be otherwise, the rest remaining. Their existence then, he argues, not arising from necessity, nor from mechanical causes, nor from chance, must be from design and intelligence.
But I would ask, Suppose they were necessary con- sequences of each other or of some higher principle, or did arise from mechanical causes, would not that higher principle, or those causes, so arranged as to produce them, be an equal proof of design, or even a higher? So singularly deep-seated is the prejudice, that design can only be inferred when we cease to trace laws, or when conditions appear arbitrary. The idea of "mechanical necessity" (derived pro- Mechanical bably from the school philosophy) as something dis- tinct from the result of systematic plan in the order of the universe, has long continued to haunt the ideas of writers on the subject, and to be the source of many cavils. Uniformity From the inductive philosophy we derive our of natural causes. And hence it is, that we arrive at those sublime ideas of a pre- siding Intelligence of which law and uniformity, universal mechanism once for all adjusted, are the proper external manifestations. To him, the world is made up of recon- dite combinations of physical laws, and the existence and maintenance of those laws are the very indi- cation of a Supreme Mind.