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Other states fund noncredit education based on a proportion of the credit full-time write my college paper for me equivalent (FTE) funding rate. The amounts can vary from half of the credit FTE rate, as in Nebraska, to three-quarters of the FTE rate, as in New Jersey and North Carolina. This type of funding strategy provides the most clearly defined and dependable source of funding for noncredit workforce education, which could encourage programs to become more institutionalized at the colleges. Each year the state provides a set allocation dedicated for noncredit workforce education. This fixed amount of funding is often small relative to the amount of funding that the state provides for credit programs. This report refers to them as based on contact hours to reflect the range of ways that states count noncredit enrollments that may be distinct from the way they count credit FTEs. Colleges may or may not depend on this source of funding. Given its relatively small amount and potential volatility, colleges may not organize their programs to account buy college research papers online for this funding source.

This method contrasts with what occurs in other states, where state general funds may not be used to support noncredit workforce education.

Therefore, the amount of state general funds used by colleges to support noncredit workforce education may vary across each of the colleges in the state, and, in fact, policymakers in one of the 10 states reported that the size of noncredit programs and the amount of support used varies widely across the colleges. Colleges in these states may pursue a range of strategies to support noncredit workforce education, including entrepreneurial 18 efforts to generate a range of strategies to support noncredit workforce education, higher tuition levels, and increased pursuit of grants.

Alternatively, they may simply devote fewer resources to noncredit workforce education or they may attempt to offer more courses in credit that they may prefer to offer in noncredit.

Funding for noncredit workforce education from general funds is changing in some states, often reflecting the role that policymakers see for noncredit education in achieving workforce development and promoting access. In 2006, California passed legislation to increase the funding for noncredit education that promotes career development and college preparation. The new funding rate is 71 percent of the FTE rate, up from 53 percent. Noncredit is seen as having an important role in creating a bridge to the college. New Mexico allocates these fixed funds to its colleges buy college research papers online based on the number of noncredit contact hours they provide.

Officials in some states are seeking to influence their legislature to gain state support for noncredit workforce education. In Ohio, state officials are collecting data on noncredit enrollment in order to demonstrate its importance for workforce development and convince the state legislature to provide funding for noncredit education. They are drawing attention to the connection between workforce development and economic development to show that buy college research papers online community colleges have a distinct role relative to four-year universities in terms of enhancing economic development.

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For example, the Virginia Community College System commissioned a study of its Workforce Development Service Centers that includes an analysis for the economic benefits of noncredit (Magnum Economic Consulting, 2005). The case study colleges vary in the tuition they charge for noncredit courses and in how tuition levels are balanced with the desire to generate revenue. Tuition costs are likely to influence the accessibility of noncredit programs to low-income individuals (Dougherty, 2003). Case study colleges in states with funding for noncredit education tend to have controls on tuition levels. The most stringent controls are in California, where tuition for all workforce-oriented noncredit courses is set at zero and noncredit funding is targeted at specific populations to support career pathways. More expensive training for employers is conducted separately and for a charge. In setting tuition for individuals, other case study colleges consider the particular course, its cost to the college, and its target population. Other training courses which are more advanced, and which students can typically afford, are priced at market levels. The case study colleges in Texas, supported by state general funds for noncredit education, all have internal formulas to determine tuition levels, and may include some amount of profit, depending on the course and the population it serves. To the extent that more expensive training courses can provide pathways to well- paying careers, the higher cost could pose a barrier for disadvantaged students who cannot afford the tuition, which is not eligible for federal financial aid.

As states fund and collect data on noncredit workforce education, they must define specifically what qualifies as a workforce course. About half the states provide colleges with some definition guidelines (see Figure 2).

To qualify for reimbursement, a course must be listed in the manual and have the goals of assisting individuals get a job or advance in the job they have. In Iowa, the state and community college leaders developed specific guidelines for defining all types of noncredit education. Colleges in states without general funds for noncredit education may be more likely to consider offering courses for credit rather can you write my essay for me than noncredit in order to keep tuition levels low. While numerous factors are considered in deciding on a course format, cost is a potentially important factor in colleges without state funding for noncredit. Colleges also determine the mode of a course depending on current labor market demands. Two colleges recently moved their real estate licensure courses from credit departments to noncredit because the market does not require an associate degree. Since the labor market did not require a degree along with the real estate license, it made sense to locate these programs in the noncredit division.

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