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The movement is yet in its infancy, but sufficient has been accomplished to warrant a prophecy that the education of the future will be placed upon a solid foun- dation of facts rather than opinions, of reasonable understand- ing rather than prejudice. If the present study helps in some small measure to bring that era closer in the humblest of school-subjects the labour it has cost will not have been in vain. THE more or less successful efforts made in the last few decades to explain and interpret the phenomena of in- dividual growth both psychologically and physiologic- ally in the light of racial development demand at least an at- tempt to do the same in connection with the problem of writ- ing. If we believe, with JuddS that such an attempt will give us no direct help in formulating a theory of correct peda- gogical practice, we may at least expect that an historical sketch of the development of writing in the race will raise some questions and buy cheap research papers throw a certain amount of light upon their proper solution. Certainly, we must avoid too close an appli- cation of genetic psychology to the individual. To neglect the many differences between the problems facing the race in developing writing and those facing the individual in applying the finished product of that development would be to defeat our own ends. Our findings, therefore, must be made always with this difference held clearly in view. Care must be taken to see that there really is a clear analogy between the position of the race and that of the individual at the point discussed before we may claim that what is true of the race will be true of the individual. Even then our conclusions will be only suggestive, and will be accepted only if confirmed by evidence derived from other methods of inquiry which allow a more definite and scientific treatment. The first effort of man to represent ideas through mark- ings naturally took the form of direct representation of natural objects. The caveman of the Palaeolithic age depicted upon the tusks of mammoths and the bones of animals the fauna which formed the most important element in their en- vironment. The surprising feature of these efforts is their iJudd, C. They can scarcely be classed as buy custom papers writing, for we should buy cheap research papers consider them as artistic products rather than efforts to find a medium of communication through markings. It is but a short step however to apply the power of picture- making to such uses that it may properly be called writing. So the Chinese used a symbol to represent the sun, or the Indian drew the picture of a canoe to represent an actual canoe.

Such ideograms, to use a convenient term, represented actual buy cheap research papers concrete things. An important extension in the range of expression allowed by ideograms is obtained as soon as they become symbolic, and instead of representing concrete objects, suggest abstract ideas. For instance, among the North American Indians, Schoolcraft tells us, a picture of a pipe symbolized peace, a vine, friendship, a bird with extended wings, haste. Even to- day we still retain a few such ideograms in common use. The Roman numeral I is originally the picture of one finger, V represents the hand with its five fingers.

The next important step in the development of ideograms is their use in combination to express ideas. For instance, the old Chinese ideogram to represent wife was formed by combin- ing two representing woman and broom, to give the idea of love, those representing a woman and a son. So, in early Cuneiform writing, the combination of the signs for house and darkness gave a sign for prison, the idea of tear was re- presented by the combined ideograms for eye and water.

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Working in this way, the Chinese have elaborated signs for 40,000 words.

It is obvious that so cumbrous a system is a terrible strain upon the memory. So true is this that it takes a Chinaman twenty-five years to learn to read and write, and even then his knowledge is by no means exhaustive. It is plain, too, that such a system of writing can never be used freely by the great mass of the people, and consequently comes to be a possession of only the ruling or hieratic classes in the population. Three kinds of phonograms may be distinguished: (a) Verbal signs, representing entire words. The use of verbal signs in combination give us the familiar rebus.

This originated in the application of ideograms to proper names, in which case the idea behind the ideogram was neglected and the sound of the spoken word representing that idea became predominant. So Smithfield might be represented by the pictures of a blacksmith and a field. A natural transition, though a momentous one, occurs when the conventionalized ideogram is used to represent the first syllable of the word instead of the whole word. Thus the Japanese adopted the Chinese characters, but by choosing certain ones to repre- sent all possible syllabic combinations in their tongue, they were able to represent all Japanese words by using fewer than fifty symbols. This syllabary marked the highest point at- tained by Japanese genius, and the fact that so gifted a race was unable to develop a true alphabet is a significant indica- tion of the extreme difficulty experienced by man in analyzing words into their simplest elements. The Egyptian hieroglyphs are the source of all alpha- bets in use to-day in the world. The Egyptians themselves in very early times were able to develop their hieroglyphs into syllabic and alphabetic symbols, but continued to use the three systems of ideograms and syllabic and alphabetic phonograms side by side. They proved unable to clear away the dead husks clinging about the living germ which they had created, probably because the art of writing was confined to the priest- hood, and in that class tradition was very strong. Moreover, simple writing was not a desirable thing in their eyes, since 11 they enjoyed greater power, because of the very fact that they alone were able to interpret the writings of past ages. The great task of abstracting the simple alphabet from the mass of ideograms and syllabic signs in which it was embedded was accomplished by the Semites during their tenure buy cheap research papers of power in Egypt. The alphabet spread from them over the whole Mediterranean basin, changed a little by the Greeks, and again by the Romans.

All alphabets in use in the world to-day have come, as Taylor has shown, in direct line of descent through the Semites from the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. We may now summarize the development of the art of writing from the psychological standpoint. It makes a begin- ning with the pictures of concrete objects, a device natural to man in an age and environment when thought was confined to the external and concrete, and did not yet embrace the more difficult ideas of relationships. As the mental process grew wider in its scope, so the ideograms took on a symbolic mean- ing. Up to this point it is obvious that ideograms are entirely independent of language. A Kaffir chieftain or an English settler might interpret an Indian ideogram just as well as the Indian himself.

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