Buy apa research paper

We have pointed out before that this has an important bearing upon the proper method of teaching of writing, but it is of sufficient import- ance to bear repetition. A teacher must continually show the class the movement to be used. So, too, in attempting to correct bad form or movement, the best method is to show the actual movement which produces better form or which is less laborious and more rapid. We may also note the fact that consciousness will not enter very largely into the process of imitation so far as the move- ment is concerned.

The reason for this lies in the fact noted before that the child has gained all or nearly all of the ele- ments of the movements needed before every attempting to write. To attempt to teach just what movements are needed to attain a certain end is bad pedagogy, for, by thus fixing attention upon the movement the teacher hinders rather than helps its correct reproduction. Further, since writing is eventually to be used automatically and unconsciously, con- sciousness should enter into the learning of it as little as pos- sible. It has also been stated that the process of voluntary imi- tation must be both analjrtic and synthetic.

Of these two phases of the process, undoubtedly the analysis presents greater difficulties to the child.

It is a well known fact that a child can see only the most striking characteristics of any ob- ject, and an attempt to reproduce that object is bound to result only in a line or two which vaguely represent the form as the child sees it. This gives us an important hint on method in teaching writing. The form must be carefully analyzed for the child into its elements.

By drawing attention to the rather minute differences between "a" and "o," for example, the teacher can smooth the path for successful imitation. With- out such previous help, the buy apa research paper difference will probably never be perceived in the first place, and certainly never reproduced in the second. It will not do, however, to begin with too large subjects for analysis.

Experience shows that a single letter is quite enough. If the analysis has been carefully done, the synthesis does not offer so much difficulty. Once a child sees the form clearly, it is just a matter of time and practice until he acquires the power to combine the elements of that form in a satisfactory reproduction. Idealistic imitation will become effective only in the later stages of writing. A child who, after learning to write, makes up his mind that he will become as good a writer as his teacher, and with this ideal in view proceeds to improve his work, may be said to be learning through idealistic imitation. Learning by understanding does not, or rather should not, enter into the teaching of handwriting at all.

Any attempt to make writing a reasonable act, or to explain it on logical grounds, is as foolish as to try to teach bicycle riding by a correspondence course in physics. Writing, like all manual acts of skill, is not a matter for reason to deal with at all.

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It is naturally and properly learned through imitation, and in no other way. The teacher who attempts to teach it as something to be un- derstood and learned by reason will do nothing but hopelessly confuse both the class and herself. The development of writing implies something more than the acquisition of skill. It is too closely connected with the development of language to be dismissed without an attempt to elucidate the problem from the linguistic standpoint. Oral language is acquired of necessity through imitation which is spontaneous at the beginning and then becomes vol- untary as the attempts to pronounce words become directed consciously towards the acquisition of the correct pronuncia- tion, and as the words become used for securing a desired end rather than for the mere pleasure of producing the sound.

Spontaneous imitation of sound begins towards the end of the first year of life. At this early period the child may make every sound in the language. In this way he secures a com- plete or almost complete ability to make any sound he hears.

The important thing so far as writing is concerned is that by the time the child commences to learn to write it pos- sesses a fairly extensive vocabulary and auditory and articu- latory word images which have meaning for him. Consequently these auditory buy apa research paper and articulatory images act as cues for writing. One writes while both hearing and speak- ing the words to be written, and invariably in advance of the actual writing. This anticipatory writing is a tremendous aid to fluency and speed.

The child makes much slower progress in learning visual language even with specific instruction than in learning oral language without any formal instruction and at an earlier age. Visual language is entirely conventional, and is not a natural and instructive form of expression. It is probable that visual language might be learned faster if buy apa research paper care were taken in the school room to associate it continu- ally with oral language. When writing the letter "a," for in- stance, or the word "at" the repetition of the sound with each repetition of the form would help to fix firmly the association between the conventional symbol and the sound and meaning, and thus help the auditory and articulatory images to func- tion more quickly and efficiently as cues for writing. In the same way a child should be allowed to speak all the words in every sentence he writes, at least in the initial stages of learn- ing.

The beauty of the written product should not be analyzed or emphasized until writing has been well learned. The race, 27 in all arts, first learned how to do a thing, then to admire beauty and grace in the execution or in the product. The aptitude of the child for imitation must be depended upon at first to produce adequate writing, and it is only later, if at all, that it is worth while to attempt to analyze the factors which make writing beautiful, and to lead the child to a conscious attempt to pro- duce beautiful writing.

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