Best writing essay
The snapshots also reveal a process which is language-based. They leam the significance of communicating for a purpose. Learning is advanced through the human and social aspects of collaboration. This process allows students who are open to it the opportunity to utilize their prior knowledge and beliefs (human aspect) and interact with a community of learners (social aspect) to further develop best writing essay their knowledge and skills. In teaching and in writing curricula, therefore, we should consider not only the "what" but also the "how" of teaching. As educators our goal is to develop inde- pendent thinkers and learners. We cannot accomplish this goal unless we pay attention to process as well as to educational materials and specific content knowl- edge we as a society deem it necessary for our children to have. Observation of what transpires in a collaborative planning session gives teachers as well as shidents a valuable assessment tool, helping both to answer the question: "Where do I go from here? These self-assessments, in turn, provide the teacher with valuable information on the progress of both a class of students and of individual shidents within the class. The CogniHon of Dis- covery: Defininga Rhetorical Problem. Framework for Read- ing, Venting andTalking Across IheCurriculum (PCRP 11 ), Harrisburg, PA: The Pennsylvania Department of Education, September, 1988. Those who invesHgfite teaching are involved in concerted attempts to understand the phenomena of teaching, to learn how to improve its performance, to discover better ways of preparing individuals who unsh to teach.
This work may be useful for other classroom inquiry projectsor teacher preparation programs interested in how teachers formphilosophies, make decisions, and adoptdifferent methodologies for teaching composition. Three studies in particular investigated some of the ways teachers represent themselves, their students, and their classroom situations in order to better understand the rationales teachere have for what they teach and how t y teach. Hillocks (1986) characterized four different types of instructional practice and provided explanations for ttie assumptions that underlie why teachers use these modes in tiie teaching of vmting.
Hoy and Woolfolk (1990) studied the socialization of student teachers— their senses of personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy.
Twenty-three preservice teachers from the teach- ing of writing course during the fall semes ter 1 989-90 a t the University of Pittsburgh participated in this study. In the course they learned about collaborative plan- ning, tried it for at least one of their own writing assignments, and predicted ho wcollaborative planning would work in their own classes when they became teachers. I collected and analyzed five kinds of data: 1) a journal of reaction and reflection about col- idborative planning. I asked these twenty-three stu- dents (prospective English teachers) to examine col- laborative planning as a writing technique. They were to write their reactions in a journal that was required for the teaching of writing course and in which they com- mented on several philosophies and methods for teach- ing composition (e. They also read two newsletters written by members of the Making Thinking Visible Project at the Center for the Study of Writing at Carnegie Mellon University, and best writing essay they read selections from the Project Book on collaborc five planning also written by members of this project.
They viewed a twenty-minute videotape on doing collaborative planning, and they participated in a large group planning session and discussion. They also tried collaborative planning with a partner outside of class. I collected, read, and commented on the journals at week four and at the end of the semester. This survey, de velopcxl by David Wallace and Nancy Spi vey at CMU, asked students about their own planning process as writers and about their views on collabora- 92 tion in writing (See Appendix A). On the first day of the teaching of writing class and on the last day of the course, I asked the students present to take this survey that asked 30 questions about their writing and plan- ning experiences and how they felt about both plan- ning and collaboration. When I administered the sur- veys at the end of the course, I asked the students also to indicate in the upper right-hand comer of the survey the number of times they did collaborative planning for their own assignments during the fifteen weeks of the course. I gave each of the surveys a numbered score, the highest possible score being 120. Very close to the end of the course in December, I asked these prospective teachers to predict how collaborative planning would work in a teaching situation that they imagined could happen to them (See Appendix B for best writing essay examples). I also read the final take-home examinations (questions about planning collaboratively) of each student to gain more insights into how they understood and fel t about using collaborative planning. Initial Responses to Collaborative Planning How did preservice teachers react to the collaborative planning technique for teaching writing? What reactions and reflections did they make about it over the course of an academic semester? What did they find useful and positive about it and what did they find problematic? In answer to some of their concerns about collaborative planning, I talked with them about open-ended kinds of assign- ments that would be non-threatening to students who might be hesitant to share their ideas at first. The Journals they kept during the course could be divided into two "camps. Students like Kathy and Timmie predicted that collaborative planning would be a successful writing technique in how they inagined teaching a writing class. A whole new world opens up for the writer when she allows herself to face this area of confusion and puzzlement. The most important aspect in collaborative planning is that the writer is not being judged by the supporter but, rather, encouraged. For these people collaborative planning is an excellent tool. Not only does their writing improve enormously, but they are also becoming skilled listeners and able communicators. I see the support system as character-affirming for uncertain adolescents. Yet, as with all types of collaboration, there are problems. The primary problem is that the tutor may be overpowering, or the tutee, resentful. Then maybe I can fill in the boxes for a more cohesive final draft, should onebe necessary.