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What do we hope to accomplish by making thinking visible? In writing this paper, as I reflect upon this first year of the project, I seek to provide some answers to these questions by considering different purposes for using collabora- tive planning and various methods that can be used to provide objects for reflection — and insights into the processes that we are studying. Reflective writers are investigators, conducting their own inquiry (with themselves as subjects) by askingquestions, collecting data, and interpreting what they "see. The processes must become objects that can be reflected upon. A mental record--a memory— may be enough sometimes, but a more "visible" (or audible) product can facilitate reflection. In the Making Thinking Visible Project, teachers encourage students to use various means of recording and interpreting their own processes. Probably the most common method that weuse forderivinganobject for reflection from the planning process isaudiotaping. Occasionally some sessions are transcribed in written form to allow for reading, rereading, and intensive study of the sessions. What do students listen for (or look for, in the case of a typewritten transcript)? VaHous Idnds of written re- sponses are also useful. After a planning session (or after listening to a planning session on tape), students might produce some kind of response statement The intent is for students to produce a written record of the major outcomes of the planning session and to formu- late their impressionsof it. Or, instead of summarizing and evaluating a single session, students might pro- duce a written statement of their reflections on the role of collaborative planning in the total process of writing a major paper.
This is a method that Karen Gist de- scribes in her discovery paper. Another way to get students to reflect upon the comfX)sing process is to have a planner and a supporter model collaborative planning.
When Pam Turley, one teacher in our project and an editor for this casebook, models planning with a partner for her students, she sometimes has her students, as they listen and watch, focus on different elements of the planning blackboard. Some students might listen for consider- ation of audience, others for consideration of text con- ventions, others for presentation of topic information, and so on. Then Turley leads a discussion in which students report and reflect upon what they have best website to get essays noted for their particular planning element. Students can keep their owri reflective records in journals. This is one of the methods that Linda Norris used in her study of "Student Teachers and Collaborative Planning" and discusses in her pa- per. Journal-keeping is now quite common in writing pedagogy, but Norris had a special, unique purpose for the journals her student teachers kept. Their journals were for their reactions best website can you write my research paper to get essays to collaborative planning and for their reflections about collaborative planning. The com- puter can offer yet another way to make thinking visible. The printouts from information students enter as they plan can serve as objects for reflection: Which elements did a particular writer at- tend to?
What patterns can be seen in the planning episodes? How does this episode compare to other instances of collaborative planning? There are a best website to get essays number of ways in which teach- ers can elicit reflections from their students. All of us in the project are conducting our own inquiries: asking questions, collecting data, and using that data for reflection and interpretation as we write about our discoveries.
We work in collaborative planning pairs or groups to plan our studies and our writing, and we reflect upon our own planning. We use writing as a way of making sense of what we are finding and as a way of recording the inquiry process, particularly in the discovery memos we produce. These discovery memos move us toward our final discovery paper. The papers for 1989- 90 make up this casebook, but some of them have traces of discoveries made during the previous year, which was the pilot year. Donaldson, who entered the project during the pilot year, shows how the question that he asked this past academic year builds upon work that he did previously. Her data from journals, surveys, predictions, observations, and interviews help uncover sonte pat- terns associated with their acceptance or rejection of collaborative planning. It is interesting to notf- the importance of meta- phors in our discoveries. Michael Benedict makes readers very aware of his own search for "the right metaphor," which results in his discovering an impor- tant distinction between collaborative planning ses- sions that are "mirror sessions" and those that are "window sessions. Another goal for our project is for the project itself to be reflective — for us to study ourselves collectively.
Together we study the process of collabo- ration that is manifested in the project, and it becomes an object for our reflection. In such an approach participants are both the conductors and the subjects of inquiry.
To trace the process that is our own project, we collect various kinds of data, some of which are quite similar to those that we use with our students. For instance, project participants write re- sponse statements at the end of all of our seminars. We also use all the individual discovery memos to keep track of the various dimensions of planning and writ- ing that participants are exploring. These sources of data are used in planning project activities. In addition to the more quali tati ve data, we are also collecting Writing Attitude Surveys (developed by project participants) from all students who are being taught collaborative planning through this project.
These surveys ask students to indicate the extent of their agreement to thirty state- ments about writing, planning, and collaborative pro- cesses. Students take the survey at the Ixjginning and at the end of their course.
Indicators we record include such things as our presentations, publications, and contacts. We present papers at regional and na- tional conferences, such as the Western Pennsylvania Teachers of best website to get essays English, the National Council of Teachers of English, and the Conference on College Composition and Comn.
Although individual participants in the project conduct inquiry focused on particular ques- tions and they report their discoveries, there are always unexpected discoveries, which are not the subject of any inquiry but are relevant to theproject.
For instance, one group of young people decided, on their own, to use collaborative planning when they started on a new assignment. Students in another class started paying more attention to their own use of language after they listened to audiotapes of their collaborative planning sessions. Human inquiry: A sourcebook of new paradigm research. This shared knowledge functions as a springboard for inquiry.