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In a subsequent study, Cheng (2004) devised the writing anxiety scale entitled Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI). This inventory was used in the present study since it includes the sub-categories that the study aims to investigate. These sub-categories are cognitive anxiety, avoidance behavior, and somatic anxiety. Salem and Al Dyiar (2014) investigated writing anxiety in relation to writing self-efficacy and found that the relation between writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy was more pervasive with male students. As for the causes of writing anxiety, Abdel-Latif (2007) iterated the factors that lead to Egyptian English major students writing anxiety and low writing self-efficacy. From his summary, six factors emerged and they were lack of linguistic knowledge, low foreign language competence, low self-esteem, poor history of writing achievement, and fear of criticism. However, there are a number of factors that may have serious effects on L2 learners writing ability. Thus, a high perception of writing self-efficacy is crucial for the development of the writing skill. Students with a high level of self-efficacy have a high level of self-confidence and they believe that they can organize the learning environment in a way conducive to their own learning (Bandura, 1986). Therefore, writing self-efficacy would imply a high sense of efficacy and confidence for the task of writing. L2 learners are expected to have writing self-efficacy in terms of content, design, unity, and accuracy, punctuation. It is almost imperative in the teaching of the writing skill to best paper writing site ensure the cognitive, behavioral and motivational engagement of students, which is facilitated by increased writing self-efficacy. Students with a high level of writing self-efficacy possess strong confidence in writing ability. Those who have a reduced or low level of writing self-efficacy do not have sufficient confidence in the writing skill.
Therefore, individual with high level of writing self-efficacy view difficult writing tasks a challenge and work accordingly to resolve the problems that they face (best paper writing site Lavelle, 2006). As we can understand, writing anxiety has been studied to a moderate level in the literature and similarly there are few research studies that focus on writing anxiety.
However, there is a lack of studies that focus on the writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety levels of Turkish EFL learners. In addition, there are no studies in the Turkish context that dwell on writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the Published by Sciedu Press 58 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www.
Thus, the present study aims at answering the following research questions: 1. What is the level of writing self-efficacy for Turkish EFL university students? What is the level of writing anxiety for Turkish EFL university students and what are its perceived causes? Do male and female Turkish EFL university students differ in terms of their perceived writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety? What is the correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety? Do higher education students differ in terms of their perceived writing self-efficacy and writing self-efficacy based on their grade? All groups of students are exposed to the same teaching program. The first was Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) which contains 22 items. It was developed by Cheng (2004) in order to measure the level best paper writing site anxiety of student writers experience when writing in English.
The items of the scale were graded with the four-tier system Likert scale: (I) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) undecided, (4) agree, and (5) strongly agree. The reliability and validity analyses were calculated by Yavuz-Erkan (2004). In order to identify the causes of writing anxiety, a 10-item questionnaire called Causes of Writing Anxiety Inventory (CWAI) was developed on the basis of possible causes of anxiety ranging from lack of proper practice to lack of sufficient grammar competence.
Subsequently, in order to investigate whether writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety levels differ in terms of gender, a T-test was run. Finally, in order to find out the correlation between writing self-efficacy and writing anxiety, correlation analysis was carried out. Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics about writing self-efficacy. Published by Sciedu Press 59 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. The table shows that the participants have a medium level of writing efficacy in terms of content, design, unity, and accuracy and they have a high level of writing self-efficacy in terms of punctuation.
The second primary aim of the presents study was to measure the writing anxiety level of Turkish English Language and Literature Department students. In order to do this, the results of 172 participants were grouped as low, medium, and high. To do this, the maximum values were divided into three in order to find the cut-off points.
The table also indicates that the participants have a medium level of cognitive anxiety (best paper writing site 58. As for somatic anxiety, almost half of the participants have a moderate level of somatic anxiety (48. Finally, as we can understand from Table 2, Turkish English Language and Literature department students have a medium level of avoidance behavior. As we can understand from the results, the best site to buy research papers most serious causes of writing anxiety among English language and literature department students are time pressure, negative evaluation of the teacher, and lack of sufficient English writing practice. Published by Sciedu Press 60 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN1927-6052 www. Descriptive statistics about the causes of writing anxiety Causes of Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory N Min. In order to determine whether there are differences between male and female students in terms of their perceived writing self-efficacy, a T-test was carried out.