Best essay writing service canada
For similar reasons, the use of data seems informed by quantitative considerations rather than selected as evidence confirming or refuting an identifiable position or point of view. Conceptions and Approaches Amongst this group of seventeen History students, three distinct conceptions of essay-writing were identified. The criteria adopted in the interview analysis have been validated by two independent judges 2 and differences in conception have also been found amongst the group of Psychology students who took part in the larger investigation (see, for example, Hounsell, in press). Taking only the fourteen students who can be ascribed without qualification to one of the three conceptions, four of the five students with an arrangement conception have marks below 60 per cent, while all four students ascribed to the viewpoint conception have marks in the range 60-64 per cent.
Only two students have marks of 65 per cent or more, and both are students assigned to the argument best essay writing service canada conception. What, then, of the relationships between these and other findings best essay writing service canada on student learning? The conceptions which have been identified are of essay-writing as an activity embracing more than a single essay task. And as we might in consequence expect, there are conceptual links which span this spectrum of constructs. Firstly, the most sophisticated conceptions of learning and of essay- writing entail definitions which are made explicit.
The students can readily articulate and discuss the activity as they conceive of it.
An essay offers a way of understanding or making sense of a problem or issue which is interpretatively distinct, logically coherent, and firmly rooted in the available evidence. In this argument conception, then, as in both a deep approach and a thematic conception of learning, there is a concern to abstract and construct meaning through an active engagement with the subject-matter. The quest for meaning is also characteristic of a conception of essays as viewpoints, but the holistic focus of a deep approach is here only partly manifested. Ideas are interrelated and integrated but interconnections between interpretation and data tend to be unplumbed or overridden.
The completed essay may constitute an ordered argument underpinned by evidence, but has not grown out of a consideration of the range of interpretive options open. This conception also shares the defining features of the multistructural level in the SOLO taxonomy referred to in Chapter 2.
At this level, as applied to examples of learning tasks in History, inconsistencies or conflicts encountered in data are ignored or discounted so that a firm conclusion can be reached (Biggs and Collis, 1982, pp. Contrasting observations can be made concerning the arrangement conception where the definition of an essay tends to be tacit and implied, and where essay-writing seems to involve passively restating and regurgitating what has been gleaned from source materials rather than attempting to make coherent sense of them. Furthermore, in both the arangement conception and a surface approach, the activity is seen unreflectively and mechanically. Material is collected, ideas are advanced, the discussion is given a structure, but these subsist as a collection of 122 THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING discrete procedures which lack a unifying purpose. The meaning of an essay lies less in what it says than in what the completed essay represents: outward stipulations met, a help writing my college essay course requirement fulfilled.
This constitutes learning as studying but not learning-as-understanding.
Conceptions and the Study of History Of the three conceptions identified, it is the conception of essay-writing as argument which is espoused by the School of History.
How is it that two other conceptions apparently persist, especially when the students are such prolific essay-writers? In the case of the students who see essay-writing as arrangement, the very frequency with which essays are prepared may help to account for the persistence of the conception. The consequences may be especially acute as far as this particular group of students is concerned, for what also distinguishes these students is a perceived gap between their aspirations and what they achieve in their essays, combined with uncertainty about what essay-writing entails. And since the School and the tutor explicitly indicate best essay writing service canada what is required in a History essay, the uncertainty these students feel cannot evidently be resolved by informa- tion-giving, but represents a more fundamental problem. These students tend to place a premium on originality and to see essay-writing as a medium for self-expression. For these students, interpretation is bound up with their own ideas, thoughts and feelings. Whatever reserva- tions these students may have about their essay workload and its consequences, they see themselves as practitioners, in their essay- writing, of the discipline of History. Interviewer: What do you think the tutor was looking for in this essay? Although on my last essay he did say that I spent too much time explaining things, and I ought to be arguing and interpreting more, and so I was trying to argue and interpret all the way through this, as well as obviously having to bring in details. To maintain confidentiality, all of the students have been given fictitious names.
Each judge was given a set of coding instructions and a sample of uncoded interview extracts. The level of agreement reached, without consultation, was 84 per cent in both cases.
Chapter Eight Learning from Problem Solving DIANA LAURILLARD Open University Introduction Problem-solving tasks are set as a regular part of best essay writing service canada the course work on most courses in science, mathematics and technology, and in some social science courses as well.
Knowledge without the ability to apply it is rightly seen as a best essay writing service canada very poor commodity, and teachers therefore regard problem-solving exercises as an important part of learning.
Problems may sometimes be set to give students practice in some procedure, such as solving quadratic equations, but students learn little from this, other than a facility with the procedure itself.
We are concerned only with problems intended to develop in the students at least a greater familiarity with their subject, and perhaps a better understanding as well. The teacher faces a difficult challenge in designing problem-solving tasks that fully serve this educational function. Such tasks should help the students to weave the factual knowledge they have into their own conceptual organization, by enabling them to elaborate the relationships between concepts and to impose structure on the information they have.