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It is possible for rotation of the hand with the wrist best essay writer service as centre to occur as well as rotation of the forearm about the elbow. It is plain that either the rotation of the hand on the wrist or of the forearm on the elbow will produce an arc of a circle, the latter the flatter one as the forearm which forms the radius of its circle is longer than the hand which is the radius of the former. If we now write two lines, using the some rotation as above, and taking care to exclude as far as possible all movement except those of the forearm and hand respectively, the lines of writing will curve upwards in a similar fashion. It appears at once that some further adjustment is neces- sary to keep our writing in a straight line across the page. This is done by humping the hand in the middle of the line, thus flattening out the curve. As the hand traverses the line it is easy to observe the pencil or pen becoming more vertical as it approaches the centre of the line, and assuming a greater 31 slant at either end. The arc may also be flattened by draw- ing back the help on essay whole arm in the centre of the page. My own observation leads to the conclusion that both adjustments are used custom essays usa by nearly everybody, the first if the paper is narrow and the adjustment needed consequently small, the second if the paper is wide and the arc to be adjusted correspondingly large. It is obvious, too, that since the arc obtained by rotation of the hand is so deep, such rotation should be excluded entirely from writing or confined within very narrow limits.
Further, we may take the best position of the forearm to be at right angles to the lower edge of the paper and along its centre line, as this brings the centre of the arc to be adjusted in the centre of the line of writing. This is plainly the best position, as the line along which the writing is to go will then form the chord of the arc and the least adjustment will be necessary. At the beginning of a line of writing, if the forearm is in the position described, the fingers point to the left hand corner of the paper, in the centre, at right angles to the line of writ- ing, at the end, to the right hand corner. It is plain, then, that if the fingers move always in a line parallel to the axis of the forearm the letters will pass from an excessive left to right slant through a vertical position to an excessive right to left slant.
But the slant of writing in adults does not vary in this manner. The reason is that the fingers instead of moving in a direction parallel to the axis of the forearm move always toward the body of the writer. There is, however, a tendency to overslant at the right hand side of the page.
This movement is called pronation, and forms a more vertical stroke, which counter- acts the tendency to overslant at the end of a line. So far we have dealt only with the movements and posi- tion of the right arm. The left arm also has its task of hold- ing the paper firm and shifting it higher up on the desk to keep the line of writing at approximately the same distance from the edge of the desk. This is necessary to enable the right forearm to rest continually on the desk.
No fine adjustments are necessary here, and we may leave the work of the left arm without further discussion. It may now be profitable to take a single letter and exam- ine the work of the fingers in forming it.
The thumb then takes charge and by an unward pressure towards the right completes the curve to the highest point of the letter.
The index finger now takes the leading role and gives the long, vertical stroke to the beginning of the curve of the lower loop. The middle finger again comes into play and forms the leftward curve of the lower loop. It surrenders in turn to the thumb, which com- pletes the letter by forming the last upward curve to the right. The practised writer does all this in something under 1-5 of a second. We shall now take a line of writing and attempt a rough analysis in the light of the foregoing : In this line we see by actual count that the thumb exerts pres- sure 61 times, the index finger 36 times, the middle finger 39 times.
Moreover, this pressure is often complex, as in the down stroke of n both the index and middle fingers take part. Besides this, there is the continual sweep of the arm across the page, the adjustment of the fingers or arm to keep the writing in a straight line, and the further adjustments of fingers or hand to produce a uniform slant.
All these adjust- best essay writer service ments are made in less than 10 seconds. The abil- ity to write rapidly and well depends wholly upon the abil- ity to execute these movements rapidly either simultaneously or in succession. It is the difficulty of making even the simp- lest of these movements accurately at even a low rate of speed and the absolute lack of co-ordination in them which the child 33. We may now summarize briefly the results yielded by our analysis of the writing movement. This differ- entiation of action of the fingers and co-ordination of the thumb with them presents fairly large difficulties in learning. This rotation should be excluded en- tirely or made a minimum because the depth of the arc pro- duced is so great that it is impossible to adjust it to the straight line best essay writer service of writing without a serious cramping of the hand or an interruption in the writing caused by shifting the whole arm. We shall now attempt to discuss the relative merit of the different combinations of movements commonly used in writ- ing in order to determine the best in economy of effort and in efficiency. These terms are used not in the sense that the movement indicated by the name is used exclusively, but that it predom- inates in the total complexity of the movement to such an extent that it may fairly be used to describe it. The freearm movement is especially suitable for the be- ginner in writing. The child is incapable of making very pre- cise and accurate movements, simply because the co-ordina- tion of movements required for precision and accuracy is im- possible until the nerve tracts controlling the movements be- come associated in best essay writer service well-defined paths. It follows that the beginner in writing should make his letters very large, because the same amount of deviation from the correct form in a large letter is less noticeable than in a small one. If the child uses only the fingers his writing must be very small, because the range of movement possible for his fingers is very slight.