Best custom essay writing
Yet we hear the notion of " efficient causation" in K 130 THEOKY OF CAUSATION. A recurrence to (what is at least) the simple Difficulties removed. The connection and subordination of inductive laws and generalisations is what we carefully distin- guish as physical causation. Though, as has been well observed by his biographer, Mr. Burton, such objections are of a vulgar class, and not such as a philosopher would entertain, yet it may be worth noticing how completely the possibility of falling into such absurd misconceptions is avoided by the view taken above. It should be observed that the opinion quoted of Lord Kames, besides the objection noticed in the text, involves also an instance of the entire confusion of the idea of physical and moral causation here dwelt upon. THE theory of causation has been much mixed up Final causes.
Throughout the immensely greater part of nature we can trace symmetry and arrangement, but not the end for which the adjustment is made. But this is in no way a less powerful proof of design and intel- ligence than the former. The most exact and re- condite adaptation of means to accomplish an obvious end is no more peculiarly an evidence of design, than the universal arrangement according to determinate laws which pervades the depths of cosmical space, where we are least able to trace any end. Sym- metry and beauty are results of mind of at least as symmetry a proof of high an order as mechanical efficiency. A mere design, numerical relation invariably preserved, but no further connected with any imaginable purpose, or a systematic arrangement of useless parts or abortive organs on a regular plan, are just as forcible indica- tions of intelligence, as any results of immediate practical utility. But this is a differ ence merely in degree, and as applicable to different classes of minds. In a philosophic best custom essay writing analysis of our convictions there can be no real difference in kind best custom essay writing between the two classes of conclusions. In a strictly philosophical point of view the in- ference that everything "has a use" may certainly be regarded as a generalisation which carries with it a high degree of probability. It may suffice to convince us of this, if we merely ask for what purpose is life itself conferred? It is hence manifest that to take a satisfactory view of the case, we must not rely on essay helper app the mere consideration of an end answered, but must recur to a higher prin- ciple that of symmetry, order, unity of plan, and composition of organised frames : and this too, as only one branch of the yet wider scheme of universal order. It is, however, fairly to be admitted, that many But in cer- tain cases instances occur where we should least expect it of an end an- swered utility in natural arrangements. In the same point of view (Ersted has beautifully observed, " There is no inactive void in the remote distances between the planets. The space is filled by ether, and is penetrated by the attractive forces by which the whole universe is held together. The ether itself is an ocean whose waves form light, that great connecting link which conveys messages from globe to globe and from system to system. Under a system which could not go beyond the assignment of each class of phenomena to some peculiar unknown efficient cause, unconnected with others, no such generalisation as unity of design could have been legitimately attained. The remark of Bacon f that final causes are not in Final causes misplaced themselves to be rejected, but have been wrongly in philo- sophy. It may be very true that sometimes hints towards inductive investigation have been obtained from the consideration of the ends to be answered by certain observed conditions.
Extension of argu- ment for design to unity of composition in physi- ology. If we cannot discard the term, we must enlarge its meaning. We may speak of " design " with refer- ence solely to " order " and " arrangement," without looking to the idea of practical utility. Such modes of expression are far preferable, as not leading the mind to any undue expectation of what it will not realise. Thus in reference to physiology, the higher argu- ment acquires an expansion in proportion to the progress of the science.
We obtain more enlarged ideas of design as we advance from the more con- fined views of the older schools towards the wider principle of symmetry and unity of composition. So that (( final causes " properly understood, so far from receding (as some pretend) before the advance of modern science in the wider and more philosophic sense, eminently derive increasing evidence from its ESSAY I. Nor is it just best custom essay writing to accuse those of the modern school who are engaged, as their special and legitimate object, in investigating the former, of undervaluing the latter. The celebrated case of the cells of bees deserves The ceils of the honey- more particular consideration, inasmuch as it offers an comb.
The argument points to a highly intellectual operation either performed by the bee, or implied in the arrangement of its organs, so as mechanically to effect it. Argument Paley expressly held that the mechanism of the from astro- J J uomy.
They, however, are not necessary : each might be otherwise, the rest remaining. Their existence then, he argues, not arising from necessity, nor from mechanical causes, nor from chance, must be from design and intelligence. But I would ask, Suppose they were necessary con- sequences of each other or of some higher principle, or did arise from mechanical causes, would not that higher principle, or those causes, so arranged as to produce them, be an equal proof of design, or even a higher? So singularly deep-seated is the prejudice, that design can only be inferred when we cease to trace laws, or when conditions appear arbitrary. The idea of "mechanical necessity" (derived pro- Mechanical bably from the school philosophy) as something dis- tinct from the result of systematic plan in the order of the universe, has long continued to haunt the ideas of writers on the subject, and to be the source of many cavils. Uniformity From the inductive philosophy we derive our of natural causes. And hence it is, that we arrive at those sublime ideas of a pre- siding Intelligence of which law and uniformity, universal mechanism once for all adjusted, are the proper external manifestations. To him, the world is made up of recon- dite combinations of physical laws, and the existence and maintenance of those laws are the very indi- cation of a Supreme Mind. But chance is irrecon- cilable with laws, fate with mind, regulated and fixed order with blind destiny, fortuitous accident, or arbitrary interruption. All rational natural theology advances by tracing Natural theology the immediate mechanical steps and particular pro- strength- ened by the cesses in detail, and the physical causes in which chain of causes. The greater the number and extent of such secondary steps and intermediate pro- cesses through which we can trace it, the greater the complexity and wider the ramifications of the chain of causes, the more powerful and convincing the instruction they best custom essay writing convey as to the existence and operation of the Divine wisdom and power.