Learners also need to be aware of and use some criteria such as generating ideas, focusing ideas, organising ideas, having cohesion and comprehension, expressing unique ideas in a proper way. Some of them are entirely focused on the language itself, some on communication, and others on both the forms and message. During the language learning sequence, students may need to focus their attention on the components of language and to practice manipulating them (Chastain, 1988). Franco (1996) states that it has always been focused primarily on the teaching of a language as a means of oral communication- listening and speaking skills with secondary emphasis on reading and writing skills. It is argued that learners lack vocabulary and have difficulty describing, defining, explaining, and paraphrasing their ideas and points of views. It is clear that if the learners are not prepared well, we can not expect them to get good results in writing performance. In the process of teaching writing, there are some crucial parts such as organising information and generating ideas in a clear way.
By focusing on ideas, the relevant ideas would form the topic of the text. By connecting the ideas in a meaningful way, a fluent expression is created. In order to have a clear and fluent expresssion the sentences should be coherent.
Cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical connections between individual clauses.
In addition to these, grammatical and stylistic devices should be taken into consideration in writing. In the last two decades, the researches in L2 writing have undergone tremendous growth. However, there are very limited studies in writing researches in linguistics. Also, there are very few studies on how students use writing competences to learn a second language.
Most of the L2 writing researchers tend to address the issue of how students learn to write in a second language. In literature, there are many studies about proficiency of language skills and its effects. Depalma auto paraphrasing and Ringer (2011) argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning, and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. This study theorizes a construct forged from collective insights on transfer of learning in the fields of educational psychology, education, and human resource development--namely, adaptive transfer. In another study, Sersen (2011) aims to utilize an buy a college paper online experimental-education technique for improving the writing skills of Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. This improvement of skills is sought by making the student-participants in this study consciously aware of those specific aspects of LI to L2 transfer that would appear to affect their English writing products in a very direct and negative way. The results of this research suggest that making students consciously aware of negative (LI to L2) transfer has resulted in a mitigation of certain aspects of that transfer, hence, yielding a degree of improvement in writing skills. The results reveal that the first language interference errors fell into 12 categories and different structural features required in a genre influences the write my paper for me fast writing errors made in the genre. In fact, the instrumental role of writing in the acquisition of a second language auto paraphrasing has a very important place. The effect of writing in language acquisition is not only in one direction from LI to L2.
The sample chosen for this study was deliberately selected randomly from Turkish-speaking ESL university students. These students, who were at intermediate and upper-intermediate levels of ESL, range in age from 18 to 21. The study was conducted with 40 adult native Turkish-speaking ELT university students who were at the same LI proficiency level. One group of learners took two- semester-ESL writing courses.
After two semesters, the participants were given an essay writing exam in LI. For the assessment, a writing criteria check list were prepared. The items of the criteria were evaluated by the professionals. In the assessments, five writing criteria - content, organization, mechanics, grammar, and setting were analysed. The essay type question consist of a topic on education, and must be completed in 30 min.
The writing criteria which were taken into consideration while evaluating these paragraphs auto paraphrasing are as follows: The participants were divided in two groups. The first group consisted of the 20 students (n:20) who have not taken any L2 writing classes. The second group of students (n:20) were made up of students who have had a year-long-writing class experience. The students have same LI proficiency (Turkish) backgrounds. The LI courses in universities and their highschools have same contents and equal-course hours. So, in this study, it is accepted that these two groups have almost same LI writing proficiency (Table 1). Research instruments and procedure Data for the study were collected after one group of students completed their L2 writing courses. An essay writing exam in LI was used to examine research paper to buy explicit proficiency of first language writing. This assessment contains 300-word-vocabulary essay writing consisting of five assessment items mentioned earlier. In assessment, through the writing criteria check list, sentence connectors, verb tense, question words, articles, prepositions, word forms, adjectives, pronouns, relative pronouns, adverbs and auxiliaries were also checked. In their English writing course, the students have gained a different perspective via different types of materials such as newspapers, magazines and academic works.