Admission college essay help
A conclusion of our examination of learning approaches would thus be the somewhat paradoxical statement that to quite a large extent it is the intention to learn from the text which leads people to misunderstand it. When a text is defined as an object of learning this seems to affect how it is made sense of, and prominence is given to criteria of relevance which are not those adhered to in other reading situations. Were this to be a problem characteristic of their reading in general, it could be interpreted as a severe dysfunction. It is our assumption, however, that the crucial process of decoding a text on the premisses on which it was written, is the natural mode of acting in everyday reading situations.
There are many factors which might be seen as reinforcing this way of learning: overloaded curricula, forms of assessment requiring the more or less verbatim recall of facts and even the design of text books, which can present knowledge in such a neatly parcelled way that there is scope for little beyond mere memorizing. Nevertheless, to suggest that schools may encourage a surface approach is not to level an accusation, for the conception of learning endorsed in schools is modelled on what this concept is commonly assumed to refer to in society at large. Without going too deeply into this fascinating topic, the dominance of a factual view of knowledge among teachers and learners can be seen as a consequence of its domination of the larger cultural context of Western everyday thinking, where there is a strong tradition of construing knowledge in absolutistic terms. Nor should we be surprised that students have difficulties when this definition of knowledge is challenged (cf. But can the database coursework conclusion be drawn that a deep approach is more efficient than a surface one?
We hope the reader has been able to conclude that this is not necessarily the case given a long admission college essay help tradition in education of what characterizes pedagogic situations. In higher education, however, the demands of learning are in many cases of a different kind, since students have to work much more independently and have to deal with a substantially larger volume of written material. In that setting, a surface approach can be detrimental.
The problems students encounter in reading are thus not merely — as is commonly assumed — efficiency problems, a question of speeding up teaching and learning in a one-dimensional process of fact-gathering. A dynamic conception of knowledge, a commitment to seeing reality from new and previously unfamiliar perspectives, is thus built into the scientific enterprise itself. Though this is self-evident to the trained academic, it may appear as strange and unfamiliar to the student.
Coming to terms with it causes pedagogical problems which are bound up with changes in conceptions of reality and the expansion of intellectual repertoires. This is the process of abstraction and detachment from the world close at hand which writing per se has made possible, and which confronts us today with pedagogical problems in our attempts to convey its insights to coming generations. Acknowledgements The research reported here has been financed by the Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Chapter Six Learning from Lectures VIVIEN HODGSON University of Lancaster Introduction Within higher education, lectures continue to be a dominant feature of many courses, and their prominence is reflected in the large body of research that has been carried out on lecturing as a method of teaching.
The study described in this chapter was an attempt to look at lectures as they are experienced by students.
As McKeachie (1978) observes, a college course cannot be divorced from the total college culture: a method of teaching greeted enthusiastically by students in one institution may be less than warmly received in another. The fact that the findings of a large number of these studies have been inconclusive can be seen as a consequence of their narrowness of approach.
Where the attempt has been made, however, the picture presented is a rather different one. Method looms less large, and instead the focus shifts towards factors such as attitude, enthusiasm, involvement and the qualities of the relationship between lecturers and students. One of the many questions Marris put to students was what they wanted from lectures and what in their experience distinguished good lectures from bad. But, perhaps even more usefully, he can provide a more personal context, showing why the subject interests and excites him, how he has used it in his own experience, how it relates to problems whose importance his audience already understands.
From this, the student can more easily imagine how he himself could use it: he develops his own context of motives for mastering a problem.
As attention has shifted, therefore, towards the experiences of the participants themselves, the teacher-student relationship has begun to occupy the foreground of discussion.
Background to the Study The students who took part in the study were taking one of three different undergraduate courses: a second-year social science research methods course, a final-year microbiology course, and a first-year applied physics and energy course. Information on the perceptions of the different groups of students was collected by informal interviewing throughout each course together with an end-of-course questionnaire designed to tap into comments and concerns expressed during the interviews. Because of the numbers of students involved, a sample was selected from each of the courses. The students were chosen on the basis of their response to a questionnaire which sought to identify students who thought that interpersonal qualities of the lecturer (e. For each course, between two and six students were chosen from those who were apparently most or least influenced by personal factors, together with a further two or three students who seemed to be mid-way on that particular dimension. It involves audio-taping a teaching situation and then, within two days, playing back to individual students extracts from the session. The students are then asked to recall the thoughts they had during the original situation.
In the current study lectures were recorded and extracts played back to students within 24 hours. Recall sessions took place with individual students, so that the replies given could be probed in depth. On average eight extracts from a fifty-minute lecture were chosen and these were each played to the students who were then asked to recall their thoughts or feelings at the time of the extract. In total, 48 recall sessions were carried out with admission college essay help the 31 students. In the recall sessions students both described what admission college essay help they were doing and thinking at the time of the extract and explained why they thought they had responded in the way they had.