Academic essay help
These questions were developed prior to the survey.
Additional questions were developed after the survey cheap write my essay in order to obtain more information about student perceptions of the type of assistance they received from their teachers in English Language Arts classes. Please talk about some of the difficulties that you may have found in completing that first assignment?
Procedures Phase 1 The data collection procedures were started in January 2011, when a letter was sent by email to the Superintendent of a school division in Western Canada asking for permission to carry out a pilot academic essay help study of the research instrument at one of the high schools in the division. Once permission had been received from the superintendent, an email letter was sent to the principal of the targeted high school requesting his cooperation in testing the research instrument with four to six of his students. He gave his permission, and six permission forms outlining the parameters of the study were delivered to the school. These letters went home with the students for their parents to read and sign. On February academic essay help 14 th , the quantitative survey was administered in the high school.
When they had completed the survey, they were asked questions about the survey instrument in a focus group format.
Once the survey had been amended, the survey instrument was test piloted again. On March 29 th , 2011, during a follow-up visit to the high school, the revised survey was administered to twenty Senior 4 (grade 12) students. The survey was amended once more following the proposal defence of this dissertation, with three more questions added. The additional questions were designed to determine which English Language Arts class in which the students were currently enrolled, academic essay help the number of years they had been attending their current high school, and whether they were enrolled in a French Immersion program. For the dissertation, data in phase one, were collected quantitatively, by means of a survey, and in phase two qualitatively, by means of three focus groups and eleven individual interviews. As mentioned, only those students who were intending to study at a specific Western Canadian university in September 2011 were chosen. Once all of the permission forms had been received, appointments were arranged at each of the four schools. These months were selected because they corresponded with student availability (i. In total, one hundred and forty-four high school students took part in the quantitative survey out of three hundred and five students. Twenty students agreed to participate in either a focus group or an individual interview on the two occasions. On both occasions, students were questioned about courses they were taking that had a writing component as part of the course requirements.
Each of the participants was given a pseudonym before data was reported. A research assistant was hired to assist in recording the main points of the focus group onto chart paper. This research followed University of Manitoba ethics guidelines for research involving human subjects and was approved by the Education and Nursing Research Ethics Board (see appendix C for ethics approval certificate). Descriptive statistics allow a researcher to draw inferences about populations and to estimate the parameters of those populations (Trochim, 2006).
In addition, the use of descriptive statistics permits some degree of generalization from a selected sample to the population. Quantitative analysis also provides the opportunity to use charts to give a visual representation of the results. The results reported here are drawn from self-reported data and are reported strictly as descriptive percentages. The survey was pilot-tested in February 2011 and was checked for reliability and validity through the use of a focus group conducted with students after they had completed the survey.
During the focus group, follow-up questions were posed to the participants to determine the validity of the questions used on the survey. As a result of the pilot study, the survey was altered to include a number of questions the participants felt needed to be asked (see above for a complete list of the kinds of questions added). UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 94 Qualitative The first set of qualitative data were gathered using two different formats. While it was the initial intent to gather data using a focus group approach, it soon became apparent that some students were not comfortable participating in focus groups. The second round of data gathering, which occurred in November 2011, involved first-year university students. All of the data collection in the second round involved individual interviews (fourteen in total).
In the first round of data collection with the high school students, there were twenty participants. That number dropped to fourteen for the second round of data collection. One student did not choose to attend the selected university and, thus, was dropped from the study. The other five students cited time as a major factor for their inability to participate in the second round of interviews. In the first round of qualitative data collection, students who were in their final year of high school discussed their perceptions of the high school writing environment.
They were prompted to report on their perceptions of their high school English Language Arts classes, their English Language Arts teachers, and any other courses that required them to write papers of some length. UNIVERSITY AND HIGH SCHOOL ARE JUST VERY DIFFERENT 95 In the second round of qualitative data collection, students who were in their first-year of university were prompted to discuss their perceptions of the differences between the writing they had to do in high school and the writing they had to do in first-year university.
The focus group participants had the opportunity at the end of each focus group to read over the notes made during the session.
At that time, they were able to verify the information and make any changes they deemed necessary. Before beginning the process of coding for themes, the transcripts were read once to get a broad overview of the data. In conducting the initial read through, certain themes began to emerge. These initial themes were written in the margins of the transcripts. In this way, codes that had been identified subsequent to the first reading were added to the coding system. Once I had coded the data, an independent reader was given the transcripts and was asked to code the data.